‘The area linked socially and economically to a settlement is known as urban hinterland’.1 It has several synonymous terms such as ‘urban unaligned’, ‘urban field’, urban sphere of Influence’, and ‘urban zone of influence urban tributary area or catchment area. Though the terminology differs, it refers to a two-way relationship are around the town. The extent of urban hinterland depends upon factors as the size, economic – social characters and strength of the urban settlement. A.E.Smails2, Diskinson R.E3, Murphy and Vance, Singh R.L4 are the pioneers in the study of urban hinterland of British, American and Indian towns respectively. They have provided the methodology for the delineation of urban settlements and hinterlands which range from collecting data from the town itself to going to its countryside where the town’s relationship has spread in the form of distribution of goods and services. While conventional methods and parameters refer to collection of data on trade and commerce, vegetables, fruits, flowers and milk the modern aspects constitute collection of data on finding urban influence under telephone calls, banking service etc.

Under this rather extensive chapter, which forms the case study, an endeavor has been made to delineate the urban hinterland of Tiptur town. It is rather a semi quantitative study involving collection of data from various related sources in the town. Individual urban hinterlands have been delineated for both economical and cultural broad headings of the town. Where – Economic sphere or hinterland has been delineated for aspects-

1.    Commercial hinterland
2.    Vegetable, fruits and flower supply zone
3.    Milk supply zone
4.    Transport service hinterland
5.    Copra (Dry Coconut Kernel a special product of Tiptur) hinterland.

Cultural hinterland has been delineated for aspects –
1.    Educational Service zone
2.    Medical Service
3.    Cinema service hinterland
4.    Administrative hinterland.

Prof. R.L. Singh in his famous book Bangalore - an urban Survey states that ‘Every City whether big or small, forms the nucleus of its region from which it draws its raw materials or supplies the necessities’. Keeping these basic factors, urban hinterland to Tiptur town has been delineated in the year 1999-2000.

Before going into the delineation and detailed study of each aforesaid hinterland, an attempt has been made to give an over view of the physical and cultural background of Tiptur hinterland. For this purpose, Tiptur town, Tiptur taluk and the zone of influence under economic – social variables have been considered which extend into neighbouring taluks of Tumkur and other districts.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HINTERLAND:

Physiography:

In this section an attempt has been made to provide an over view of the physical and cultural aspects of hinterland of Tiptur town,
The whole hinterland area of Tiptur town is a part of the Deccan plateau, with hills and valleys, in most parts it is hills and undulating region. The chief characteristics of the hinterland topography are: this region forms water dividing area, which runs east – west in the centre of hinterland, on which Tiptur town is also located. On the whole the area can be divided into following physical sub divisions.
1.    Water dividing area
2.    Hills and highlands
3.    Plain land
4.    Shimsha basin
5.    Vedavathi basin
6.    Tanks structure

Water dividing area:

Physiographically, the surroundings of Tiptur are the chief characteristics of the hinterland. It divided Krishna and Cauvery river basins. It runs almost in middleof the hinterland from east to west. The eastern point starts near Sathenahalli of Gubbi Taluk at 13 degree 26 minutes, North latitude and 77 degree East longitude. Further, it passes along Cheluru and Hosakere road. From Hosakere it passes through Shivasandra, in between Godikere and Jayachamarajapura of Chikkanayakanahalli. Halli Taluk, then Biligere, Karadi, Bennayakanahalli, Tiptur town, (Annapura ward), Vasudevanahalli, Bidaregudi and Konehalli of Tiptur taluk. Further in Arasikere Taluk, Belagumba, Mudadi and ends near Bageshwara at 13 degree 8 minutes North latitude, and 76 degree 13 minutes east longitude. Likewise it covers Arasikere, Tiptur, Chikkanayakanahalli and Gubbi Taluk (See figure No. 5.1). The height of the water dividing area varies from 800 meters to 900 meters above MSL (Mean Sea Level).

Hills and highlands:

In Figure No.5.1 a number of hills and highlands are marked by the uniformed lines (east-west). Ten hilly and highland areas can be seen. All are located in the middle and North of the hinterland-mapped area. From the very northeast to Arasikere town, a group of hills are found in between Aggunda and Kyathanahali, to a length of 11.75kms. Hirikalgudda, Tirupatigudda 1171 mtrs. Karakalgudda 1272 mts. Are the highest hills of the range. To the North West of Huliyar, Kundurekanive (Hosadurga Taluk) hill range runs to about 15 kms with a height about 800 mts. It has manganese ore and just to the east of this range a part of MFarikanive range is located and it has an elevation of 900 mtrs. In the border of Chikkanayakanahalli, Sira and Gubbi Taluk, another hill range is formed from North south. It has extended to about 27.5 kms from Anehalli of gubbi taluk in the south and Gandahunise of sire taluk, in the north. This range has incidence of gold ore in the north. The height of the hills of this range varies from 900 to 1022 mtrs. In the northern Gubbi taluk in between Unagenal and Shivrampura, Manchaladore hill range and highlands are located up to a height of 984 mts. From Malenhalli of Gubbi Taluk and Ramnathpura of Sira Taluk a highland of the height of 841 mtrs is located. From Marashetty halli of Gubbi Taluk to Kandikere of C.N. halli taluk, a range of hill and highlands are found. Lakshmi Narayanaswamybetta, Kondigudda, Vajjra, Barasidlahalli, Thirtharampura and Hendenahalli are the parts of it. Its height varies from 800 mtrs to 1071 mtrs. This range is full of lime stone deposits, which are responsible for the birth of Diamond cement factory at Ammasandra.

Plain Land:

About 70% of hinterland area of Tiptur town is an undulating plain land, covered mainly by red soil and in pockets there is light black soil. This plain land has a gentle slope normally from North to Northeast and South to Southeast of the ridge and elsewhere from west to east towards their respective streams and water paths. Few gentle slopes can be seen at the foot of hills and highlands. Plains mainly dominate Southern, middle and the north-western parts. North-west is comparatively hilly, water streams have breaked the plains here and there.

Shimsha Basin:

The southeastern section covers about 42.77% of mapped main hinterland, which comes under Shimsha Basin. Shimsha is a tributary of Cauvery Rive. There are three main streams which form River Shimsha in Tumkur district. Of these, two are in the Tiptur town’s hinterland. One originates is the hinterland itself near Bagespura of Arasikere Taluk. Further joining number of tanks (Gandasi, Shivara, Besuge and other tanks) the real view of this stream can be seen from Hunseghatte onwards. After Hunaseghatta it joins Novavinakere and Mallaghatta tanks. Crossing Mallaghatta tank the streams forms a small river that joins another big stream near Chandrashekare pura, which flows from Kadabadhakere. Hundreds of Kodies (water passages of excess water flow from tanks) and water paths join each other on the way from Arasikere, Channarayanapatna, Tiptur, Turuvekere and Gubbi taluk and form a part of Shimsha basin.

The second stream originates near Nandihalli and Kodiyalla of Gubbi Taluk. After crossing Nandihalli, Bidare, Lakkenahalli, and Gubbi tanks, and Kadabadakere, this is the biggest tank of Tumkur district, a relatively large amount of water flows through this Kadabakerekodi during over flow of tank in three passages. All the three join again before Chandrashekarapura where the western stream (through Nonavinakere) and northern stream (Kadabadekere stream) join each other. The northern stream is also fed by hundreds of small streams ending into local tanks with the shrinks overflowing during South West Monsoon season.
Totally 1164.6 sq. kms of land area in hinterland feeds its excess water to the river Shimsha and becomes itself Shimsha basin which is one of the tributary basins of Cauvery.

Vedavathi Basin

The northern side of the water dividing area, the Vedavathi basin is situated. It accounts for 57.23% of the main hinterland. It accounts for 1769.6 sq. kms area, in the portions of Arasikere, Tiptur, Chikkanayakanahalli, Sira and Hosadurga Taluks in the hinterland area. In the extreme northwest of the hinterland, river Vedavathi flows to length of 10kms. There are three main streams in the hinterland carrying water to river Vedavathi that flow in Northeast direction and created a sub basin. One stream starts from Honavalli tank and proceeds through Kanasamudra, Holalakere, Niduvalli and Balasamudea tanks and reach Vedavathi at Mettinahole. The second stream starts at Byranayakanahalli near Tiptur and passes through Halkurke and Kuppuru tank. Here, another stream from Shettikere side also joins it. Then the real flow of the stream is visible. Further, it reaches Boranakanive a mini irrigation dam. After the wider stream proceeds and join river Suvarnamukhi which is a tributary of Vedavathi.

In the northern side of the ridge, the third stream originates near Sathenhalli of Gubbi Taluk, and Flows processed through Bramhasandra of Sir Taluk, into Kallambella and Sira tanks, and them forms a big stream Suvrnmukhi. Both and the big stream from Boranakanive dam join each other and reach river Vedavathi. Finally, Vedavathi joins river Krishna rendering the whole are Krishna river basin (See Figure No. 5.1).

Tanks:

Hinterland of Tiptur town, as a whole, is located in rain shadow area of Deccan tableland, where tanks are used for the storage of water since thousands of years. There are about 218 tanks in the hinterland. Among them 112 tanks are located in Vedavathi basin and 106 tanks are in Shimsha basin. Some of the tanks are very big and well kinow from historic periods. In the Vedavathi basin section of Tiptur town’s hinterland, Kamasamudra, Kannakatte, Balasamudra, Kalambella, Sira and Tubinakere are important tanks. A minor irrigation dam is constructed near Huliyar named as Boranakanive and it is the largest storing of the Vedavathi basin part of the hinterland. In Shimsha basin Kadabada, Mallangatta, Novavinakere and Gubbi tanks are famous ones providing water for irrigation since historic times.

Geology of Hinterland:

Tumkur district is situated right on the Archean complex where the rock formations are represented by crystalline geniuses. The eastern part of hinterland (Gubbi and Sira Taluk) is based on Geniuses rocks, Genetic strata have spread beside the granite rock strata of Tumkur, Koratagere and Madugiri taluks. In the middle, the hinterland’s geology refers to the schist rock. Western part again is based on gneissic rock.
Manganese ore is found in Kare Kurchi, which is located in the eastern end of Tiptur Taluk near Rajathadripura, while quartz is found near Kenkere of Arasikere Taluk. Soapstone is mined near Beerasandra of Tiptur Taluk, chromites mines are working at Byrapura of Channarayanapatna. Limestone, and a major mineral of direct economic use, is found in the hinterland and has lead to the development of biggest cement industry of the hinterland which is located in the mountain range near Honnebagi of Chikkanayakanahalli Taluk. Limestone is also found in the border of Salakatte of Chikkanayakanahalli Taluk. Gold is found in the border of Chikkanayakanahalli and Sira Taluk near Bellara.

Soils of Hinterland:

More then 80% of the hinterland soil is red – sandy and red alluvial with minor patches of light black soils. It can be seen in all the taluks of the hinterland. Red-sandy soil which differs from place to place, like high land red sandy, midland red-sandy and lowland red sandy. Patches of block soil is found here and there, more black soil is distributed in the north – and also towards the western part of hinterland (Hosadurga and Kadur taluk)

Climate:

The hinterland of Tiptur town enjoys tropical Monsoon climate, which is slightly modified because it is located towards western part of rain shadow region. Northern parts show slightly high levels of mercury but the whole area has tolerable temperatures-maximum and minimum varying between 38 c.g and 11.1 c.g. respectively. The region has summer, rainy and winter as major reasons. Rainfall becomes lesser and lesser as we go towards north and east. Average annual rainfall ranges from 570mm to 728mm from taluk to taluk. 50% of rainfall occurs during south – west monsoon season, 30% during north – east monsoon season and 20% is during pre monsoon season. Where the latter is quite high denoting that Tiptur is location towards Western Ghats.

Natural Vegetation:

The prevailing climate and soils of hinterland have suitably leaded to the growth of monsoon deciduous forests and shrubs. In recent years there is an extension of agricultural lands and the pace of cutting trees has been faster than forest fire resulting in the total vanishing of forests. It is a biggest anthropogenic hazard of the hinterland, affecting on thin forests that exist in certain pockets.

CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HINTERLAND:

We know that, hinterland in general consists of sub units and adjoining town. Above all, this is a two way zone under cultural aspect which includes a wide range of aspects formally discussed in this chapter such as vegetable hinterland, educational hinterland, recreational hinterland, medical service area etc. However, her an attempt is done to provide an overview of some of the informal cultural features of the hinterland of Tiptur town.

Demographic Features:

The total population of the hinterland is around 1,89,589 (1996) with an average density of about 225 parsons per square km. The overall density is moderate compared to tanks of the Tumkur district. Hassan and Tiptur taluk density was 335 and 250 respectively. Low-density taluks are Chikkanayakanahalli and Hosdurga Taluk, because of the remarkable area of land. Small hills and rural population account for 81% and 94% respectively. This is because of the absence of any major industrial town. The literacy rate of the hinterland was about 43.76% to 65.31% where Tiptur Taluk has highest rate of literacy among hinterlands (65.31%). Hosadurga Taluk has the lowest (43.76% Figure No.5.2 shows taluk wise population size of the hinterland.

Agriculture

Agriculture is the major economic activity in the hinterland of Tiptur town where coconut is the chief commercial crop. Arecaunt is commercial crop coconut cultivation can be seen in all the taluks of Tiptur’s hinterland. Arecaunt plantations are more in Gubbi and Turuvekere. Groundnut is a popular commercial crop of Sira taluk. The chief food grains like Rice, Ragi and minor millets are grown in all the taluks. Ragi is chief minor millet and it is cultivate in all the taluks of the hinterland.

Paddy cultivation takes place in the areas where there are good irrigation facilities, particularly, Hemavathi channel belt of Chennaraynapatana, Turuvekere and Gubbi taluks. In other northern taluks paddy cultivation is limited to the belts of big tanks where tank irrigation is available. Vegetables are also grown in all the taluks but southern taluks again dominant because of irrigation facilities. In the formal analysis, coconut is the economic crop of both the rich and the poor of the hinterland.

Irrigation:

Since three decades tube wells have become popular in all the taluks of the hinterland of Tiptur town. For example before 1972, number of tube wells in Gubbi taluk was 2000, Chikkanayakanahalli- 400, Tiptur-750 and in Turuvekere 430. But it increased to 8,618 4,500 6,479 and 4,641 in 1994-95 respectively. There are 218 tanks constructed in the past, which are the main source for agriculture. About 30 to 39% of the irrigated land is sourced by tanks. In 1996, Hemavathi project started feeding water through Subramannyam channel. Through this channel, about 70% of Channaraya Patna taluk, about 20% of Tiptur taluk, more than 90% of Turuvekere taluk and about 65% of Gubbi Taluk can be irrigated. The northern part of the hinterland is betrayed by Hemavathi project water. Boranakanive project of C.N.Halli taluk is becoming useless because since fifty years very rarely it gets filled up. Still there is an abundant opportunity to promote channel irrigation all over the hinterland through Nethravathi, Bhadra, Kumaradhara and Hemavathi rivers and can be used in future also as they flow in the adjoining areas. Figure No.5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6 and 5.7 show irrigation of Tiptur, Gubbi, Chikka Nayakana Halli, Turuvekere and Sira respectively.

Industries:

In the hinterland, which is mostly agricultural, only a medium cement industry and large-scale coconut based industries can be seen. Diamond cement factory of Ammasandra is the largest industry of the hinterland. Two other cement industries are located near Chikkabidare of Chikkanayakanahalli Taluk and Mathodu of Hosadurga taluk. Dedicated coconut powder industries are concentrated at Arasikere and Tiptur taluks. Cow feed and Beedi Factories are important industries of Gubbi. Other small-scale industries are moderate in number and are distributed in all most all the taluks. But hand and power loom industries of Tiptur town itself in Halepaly shows a remarkable achievement in small -scale industry.

Transportation:

Topography and rainfall are favorable for construction of roads and railway lines. All taluks are connected with each other by motarable all weather roads. Other places have metal, roads. Even tracts and bullock cart tracts and footpaths can be seen. It hinterland is connected with two National highways Bangalore – Mangalore road and Bangalore – Honnavara road there are three State highways passing through the hinterland. They are Mysore – Bellary, Bellay – Hassan and Sira – Mudigere roads. Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (K.S.R.T.C) and private bus services link the places of this hinterland with all parts of the state. Four railway roads can also be seen, which run towards Bangalore, Miraj, Hassan and Shimogga.

ECONOMIC HINTERLANDS:

As it has been already mentioned under this section an endeavor has been done to delineate hinterland of Tiptur town for aspects like –

Commercial Hinterland

Commercial hinterland is a most important factor in the study of an urban settlement. It influences the formation and development of a town. The development of a town is influenced by the development of commercial hinterland. This may be exceptional in the case of industrial, mining and tourist towns. Trade and commerce is not negligible even in such an urban centre where most of the towns and cities are developed. As consumer’s hinterland expands more and more the, rural urban contacts also grow while the concerned town/city will have a virgorous growth.

Tiptur is a commercial town. The origin of the town itself is influenced by the extent of commercial hinterland. The surrounding villages are the main cause for the origin and growth of Tiptur, as they purchase goods and services and create several goods and services in Tiptur. Consumers within the town are limited and lesser than out side the town. Therefore, villages are important to trace out the commercial hinterland. In the present study, “commercial hinterland of Tiptur”, two hundred and fifty consumers have been directly consulted and information obtained. Some of the cloth stores, Hardware, Jewellers, and Provision stores, wholesale traders have been interviewed. Figure No.5.8 shows the commercial hinterland which is longely extended in the north to south direction then East to West. It is in the shape of a pealed pooja coconut. In the north it is extended beyond Hulilyar and in the south it is nearer to Channarayana Patna. It has a total length of about 70-75 Kms. This is because of two reasons. Firstly, villagers of this part usually come to Tiptur for their copra business. After selling, they buy their provisions and other goods. Secondly, Tiptur town has better marker than Chikkanayakanahalli, Hiriyur, Hosadurga and Huliyar for copra.

In the commercial hinterland, about 500 villages belong to taluks of Tiptur, Arasikere, Hosadurga, Hiriyur, Chikkanayakanahalli, Gubbi, Turuvekere and Channarayanapatana. The villagers normal by buy their provisions, clothes, hard wares, medicines, home needs, jewels and other goods and services from Tiptur. Rests of the marginal villagers partially depend on Tiptur market. There are a remarkable number of whole sale traders in Tiptur town engaged in the trade of provisions selling condiments, fruits, hard ware, medicines to the retail buyers who are distributed at a distance of 30-40 kms away form Tiptur.

There are about 304 retail provision stores, seventy three cloth stores, fifty one electric stores, twenty home need shops and a number of other shops attracting the consumers of surrounding places. Some detailed discussion about shops is also in the land use chapter.

The commercial hinterland has occupied about 2,958.4 sq. kms of area in Tiptur Gubbi, Chikkanayakanahalli Turuvekere Channarayanapatana, Aradikere, Hosadurga, and Hiriyur. It can be divided on the basis of the direction where consumers are distributed in all the directions of the town.

In the eastern direction, the commercial hinterland has extended to about 35 Kms. In between Tiptur town and Ammasandra, along B.H. Road and railway line, about fifty villages are included in the commercial hinterland. Biligere, Kibbanahalli, Banasandra, Ammasandra, Aralaguppe, Beersandara, Somolapura, Doddaguni, Hosahalli, Halugona, Sidlehalli, Jayachamaraja Pura, Halagondanahalli taluks are identified under commercial hinterland. Food grains, cloths, provisions, vegetables, fruits, home needs, jewelleries, pesticides, petrol, diesel, automobiles, and other goods and service like vehicle service, electrical equipment service and repairs, are the chief demand of the consumers.

The South – East Commercial hinterland extends beyond the taluk boundary. It covers villages and towns about 30 Kms along Y.T. Road, Karegudi, Neeruguda, Bochihalli, Nallikere, Kuduvangatta, Nonavenkere, Albur and Kanathur. It even extends up to the taluk head quarter Turuveker and beyond. Tiptur town’s market goods and service serve its villages such as Aralikere, Dandinashivara, Siddapura, and surrounding villages. Special characteristics of the commercial hinterland in this regard are that it has captured a taluk headquarters (Turuvekere). Copra trading in Tiptur A.P.M, C. has helped in the capture of other taluk villagers as consumers. The APMC does this through capturing the coconut planters to sell its product on a large scale at a better price normally prevailing in Tiptur market than in their areas. After selling copra at Tiptur they also buy other necessary goods and services in Tiptur town.
Southern part of the Commercial hinterland extends up to Tiptur and Channarayapatna taluks. The consumers are about 38 Kms away from Tiptur and are served by the town’s trading facilities. The prominent villages in this section are Jayapura, Soogur, Rangapura, Dasarigatta, Bajagooru, Gungurumale, Masavangatta, and surrounding villages of Tiptur Taluk; and Karehalli, Kembalu, Santheshivara, Nuggehalli, Kabbalu, Belaguli, Hosahalli, Shivara, Bagooru, of Channarayapatan taluk. In all about 35 villages come under this part of the commercial hinterland for the last two decades coconut cultivation has increased with the help of Hemavathi project water, which in turu has also increased the arrival of copra to the Tiptur A.P.M.C. This has resulted in the extension of the commercial hinterland of Tiptur town towards south.

The South – Western part of the commercial hinterland is extends to a distance of about 28 Kms. Both Tiptur and Arasikere Taluks are included. Important villages are Tadasur, Bonnihalli, kallahalli, Shivara, Gurugadahalli, Besuge, and the surrounding villages of Tiptur taluk come under the commercial hinterland. As the Tiptur taluk boundary has ended at short distance of 13 Kms only a few villages of the taluk have been included in all these types of hinterlands of Tiptur town, good number of villages of Arasikere taluk along Tiptur Hassan road (SH 68A) from this direction receive commercial services from Tiptur town. Chindanahalli, Bidre, Kanikere, Hullekere, Bagevalu. Gandasi, Heggatta, Kondenalu, and surrounding villages have come under the commercial hinterland in the south – western direction of Tiptur town. Commonly food grains, cloth, seeds, pesticides, fertilizers, vegetables, irrigation equipment, construction materials and other goods are purchases. In all about 35 villages have been included in the commercial hinterland of Tiptur in this direction.

The western part of commercial hinterland of Tiptur town extends between Tiptur and Arasikere. It extends to a distance about 20 Kms from the town. In this part of the commercial hinterland, the villages of Arasikere taluk and Tiptur taluk as they have more commercial links with Tiptur. Both railway and roadways operate in between the two towns, but roads ways are frequently used as a means of transportation. Villages such as Bidre, Gowdankatte, Bommalapura, Madenur and the surrounding villages of Tiptur taluk; Haralagatta, Kodihalli, Laxmidevarahalli, Mylanahalli, Sulekere, Kallangere, and other eastern villages of Arasikere taluk have been included. The degree of trading likds with Tiptur market goes on diminishing as we move nearer to Arasikere.

In the North-Western direction the commercial hinterland reaches a distance of about 30 Kms from Tiptur. Once again, the wholesale copra market draws the sellers from long distance who acts as consumers of other goods and services in Tiptur. Towards notth-west, Honnavalli road leads from Tiptur and Arasikere taluks. Villages like Gudigondanahalli, Thimampura, Nagathihalli, Honnavalli, of Tiptur taluk Holakere, Rampura, Madalu, and surrounding villagers of Arasikere taluk come under the commercial hinterland inhabitant of about 35 villages are the consumers of Tiptur markers.

The Northern part of commercial hinterland, among other sections, is the longest part of commercial hinterland Tiptur town. It extends to a distance of more than 45 Kms towards Huliyar, which is about 43 Kms away from Tiptur. It is one of the important commercial centres for wholesale and retail business. There are four main reasons for the long spread of commercial hinterland in the northern direction. There is no near by good quality and quantity goods and service market in qualities in this direction. Chikkanayakanahalli marker is not big and attractive. Secondly this section is attracted by the Tiptur chief copra trade of A.P.M.C. for the sale of copra. Thirdly other taluk head quarters like Hosadurga and Hiriyur are also equally distant as Tiptur,but markets are smaller than in Tiptur. Fourthly, Tiptur provides good marketing services and has good frequency of private bus transport. Halkurike, Halenahalli, Balavanerulu, Malligere, Handankere, Mathigatta, Thimmlapura, Honnashettyhalli, Mothihalli, Kandikere, Kenkere, Keshavapura, Kuppuru and inhbitents of about 85 surrounding villages are the consumers of Tiptur market. The quantity of goods purchased by consumers from Tipturis directly proportionate to the distance they have to travel. Only locally not available and expensive goods are purchased from the Tiptur market. For example jewellery, hardwares, pumpsets, motors, two wheelers, T.V., irrigation pipes, home -appliances, electrical equipments, clothes for marriage and festivals, medicines and other goods are purchased by customers.

The North – Eastern part of the commercial zone is located on both sides of the Tiptur – Chikkanayakanahalli, a Taluk head quarters. Sometimes, villagers beyond Kms also come to Tiptur for trade and commerce. They buy items likes jewellery, machine tools, automobile etc. Wholesale buyers of fruits, vegetables, grains, bangles, medicines, etc., also make purchases from Tiptur market. The people of Kallakere, Eralagere, Marashettihalli, Bennayakanahalli, Sasalu, Settikere, Makalli, Ballanehalli, Dabbeghatta, Gollarahalli, Honnebagi, Hosahalli, Kurubarahalli, and Madihalli and of surrounding villages of Tiptur and Chikkanayakanahalli Taluks (including Chikkanayakanahalli town) use commercial services to Tiptur marker. After 20 Kms from Tiptur tow, consumer’s dependency on Tiptur market becomes limited in this direction.

Thus, the commercial hinterland maps of Tiptur (See fig. No. 5.8 and 5.9) shows that in all directions it has crossed its own taluk boundary and captured the villages and consumers of other surrounding taluks. it also shows the commercial importance of this class III town.

Vegetable Supply Zone:

Any urban settlement is dependent on vegetables, milk, fruits and other agricultural raw materials from its surrounding regions. The richness of a section of agricultural lands with their ground water supply and transportation facilities gives the shape and extent of the size of the hinterland. Prof. R.L. Singh in his valuable work on Bangalore City, as early as 1962, has illustrated these aspects in relation to Bangalore. But technology, like fast transportation, quickly extends the growth of hinterland. The town’s population also places the demand for agricultural products and extends it.

Tiptur town in Tumkur district has a population of 36,095 (1991) distributed in 27 wards within the town limits. There are two wholesale and three retail vegetable markets of the two wholesale markets the older one is situated on telephone exchange road. The second wholesale market is adjacent to the taluk jail; the second one is newly constructed by the Town Municipal Authority. Therefore markets function everyday early morning till noon throughout the year. Market farmers and wholesale traders bring their vegetables daily early morning hours and trading takes place. In addition to these wholesale trading centres in Tiptur, there are three important retail vegetables markets and also about 20 retail stores located in various parts of the town. The main retail market is situated in Santhepet main road. The second one is situated around the old hospital. The third is located near C.M.C. Nursing home along B.H. Road, and is highly accessible in terms of location particularly for evening business. Apart from these major trading areas for vegetables in Tiptur, there are head-load and cart pulling sellers serving to the town.

Like other cities Tiptur town has extended it’s vegetable hinterland around the town (See Figure No.5.10 and 5.11). Vegetable hinterland covers an area of out 1784.9 Sq. Kms. This hinterland can be explained according to its direction. The eastern part of hinterland of Tiptur town extends up to about 40 Km. from the town so that the villages near Gubbi serve the town by supplying vegetables. As one moves from the town towards east the important commercial villages of this part of vegetable hinterland are Bandihally, Edenhalli, Kallegowdanapalya, Karadi, Kuppal, Shettyhalli, Biligere, Aralaguppe, Beerasandra, Kallashettyhally, Uppinahalli, Thimlapur, Banasandra, Doddaguni, Marashetyhalli, Karadi, Thyagatur, Nitturpura, Mallagatta, and many other villages which supply vegetables. This part of hindered includes the parts of Tiptur, Chikkanayakanahalli, Turuvekere and Gubbi taluks. The main reasons for this east west extension of vegetable hinterland is the development of roads, railways and transportation. The state highway, B.H. Road and railway connection between Tiptur and Tumkur have very good frequency and facilities. This helps the farmers and merchants to bring their vegetables to the town market. And other important reason is the irrigation facility. After 1996, some of the villages of this part receive water from Hemavathi Dam through channel. The increase in demand, due to the rising population of this town, attracts the farmers and merchants from Chikkanayakanahalli, Gubbi, and Turuvekere taluks. Presently Kallegowdanapalya of Tiptur taluk is an important village in this part of the hinterland. Vegetables grown in this part of the hinterland are beans, snake gourd, bitter gourd, ridge gourd, field beans, green chilies, coriander green, curry leaves, Amarnath green.

The third largest vegetables quantity of is supplied by this eastern-part of hinterland despite its long distance. This is because of the water scarcity in most of the village situated on the left side of the Hemavathi water channel, only right side villages getting water.

The second direction of vegetable hinterland and Tiptur town is southeastern part. This part comprises the villages of both sides of Y.R. Road. The length of this part of hinterland is about 25 Kms. Important villages of this part as one moves from the town towards southeast are Goragondanahalli, Eechanoor, Koppa, Koradalu, Nagaraghatta, Bochihalli, Nallikere, Nonavinakere, Vignasanthe, Aremedenahalli, Chandrapura, Gonitumkur, Gaintapura, Gottikere, Habakanahalli and Doddaghatta of Turuvekere taluk of Tumkur district.

The south-eastern part of the hinterland has more intensive supply vegetables zone because of irrigation facility. After 1996, most of the villages get water from Hemavathi channel and big tanks are filled by channel water. Secondly, Tiptur Turuvekere road is busy with K.S.R.T.C. and private busses, vans, and trucks. Thirdly, coconut gardeners also encourage the cultivation of vegetables, and fourthly, Tiptur market is nearer and it is an all season market which has a lot of demand.

A good quantity to vegetables of this part of the hinterland are tomatoes, beans, brinjal, ladies finger, green chilies, coriander green and fenugreek leaves.

The third part of hinterland is the southern part of Tiptur town. This is situated on both sides of the Tiptur-Channarayanapatna Road and extends up to 30 Kms. from Tiptur. Important villages of this part starting from the town Hosahalli, Anagandanhalli, Keragodi, Rangapura, Kurubahalli, Jayapura, Sugoor, Hunasegahtta, Mathigatta, Asarighatta, Machakatte, Bojagooru, Abbunaghatta, Gungurumele of Tiptur taluk and Kerehalli, Kembalu, Valagarhalli, Bidare, Kodihalli, Anathi, Santheshivara, Beleguli, Boovanahalli, Nuggehalli of Channarayanapatna taluk.

The southern part has comparatively good supply of vegetables mainly due to Hemavathi water supply for irrigation. Secondly, underground water is available. Thirdly, most of the tanks are filled by channel or rain which assures regularity of water for the cultivation of vegetable crops. Coconut gardens, with their shaded tree lands, are helpful for cultivation of vegetables. Transport network is also good. For all these reasons the southern part of vegetable hinterland has intensively developed and considerable amount of vegetables are supplied from this part of hinterland of Tiptur town.

The southern part is the second largest supplies of vegetables. Most of the villages which are irrigated by channel are villages supplying vegetables. The important vegetables of this part are tomato, beans, chilies, brinjal, cucumber, snake gourd, ridge gourd drumstick, peas, onion, ladies finger, cluster beans, radish and pumpkin; coriander green, amaranth, fenugreek leaves which are in plenty.

The fourth part vegetable supply zone is southwestern zone. This zone extends parallel to Tiptur-Hassan road. it extends nearly 45 Km. from town. Lingadahalli Tadasuru, Bannihalli, Gurugadahalli, Shivara Besuge, Mavinkere are the important villages of Tiptur Taluk. South west zone occupies more area in Hassan and Arasikere taluk, than Tiptur. Kekere, Bidare, Hullekere, Bagevalu, Chagachagere, Haranahalli, Doddanehalli, villages of Arasikere taluk are important. Attavara, Heragu, Byrapura, Duddha, Savankanahally, Krishnapura, Chikkakdalur, Doddakadlur, Koramangala, Kabbalu, Muthahalli, Holalu, Bavinagudlu, Siddapura, Nandihalli, Yalagunda, Shanthigrama, Devalapura and other villages of entire east and middle part of Hassan taluk supply vegetables to Tiptur town.

The south – western vegetable supply zone is wider than all the zones. The length also in nearly 45 Kms. The main reasons are, firstly comparatively it receives a good south-west monsoon rainfall. Secondly, the south-west part of Hassan Taluk has favorable soil and weather which helps large-scale cultivation of vegetable crops. For the Potato cultivation, Beans are also grown. Hence the vegetable supply is naturally more from this side. Irrespective of the demand, Potato and Beans are rushed to the market during July to December. Thirdly, even when the prices godown, the Tiptur market is better than the neighbouting Hassan market.

Like the southern part of the vegetable supply zone, the south-western zone is also considered important in respect of quantity of vegetable grown and supplied. Therefore, this part is also considered the second largest part of hinterland.

The main vegetables of south-west zone are Potato, Beans, cluster Beans, Sweet Potato, Bitter gourd, Carrot, and Fenugreek leaves.

Western Hinterlands: This zone lies on both sides of Tiptur-Arasikere, B.H. Road. This part extends 22 Kms long from the town. Important villages of this part are Madihalli, Madenur, Mathihalli, Bidare, Lakihalli, Konehalli, Krishnapura, Sigenehalli, and Nagathiahalli of Tiptur taluk. Few villages of Arasikere also supply vegetables and they are Soolekere, Kallangere, Kodihalli and Belagumba.

The western part of vegetable supply zone is rather poor in both growing and supplying. The main reason for its lagging behind is water scarcity. The entire western part of vegetable hinterland is rather elevated when compared to other parts. Hence not much water flows through this section of vegetable hinterland. It depends only on rainfall. More than this reason, whole of this part which is an important water dividing area divides the water of Krishna and Cauvery basins. As a result of this the flow of rainy water starts from this place. Naturally the volume of water flow is very-very less. For this reason even ground water available is less. This has resulted is a dry land which has an average annual rainfall of about 700 mm.

The main vegetable hinterland is northwest zone. Villages of this part are spread on both sides of Tiptur-Honnavally Road. Kanchegatta, Vasudevarahalli, Banjarahatti, Thimlapura, Gudigondanahalli, Margonahalli, are few villages of this part.

The western parts of vegetable supply zone experiences considerable water scarcity. Therefore, supply of vegetables is very poor and extension of hinterland in this direction is limited to 10-12 Km.
The variety and volume of vegetables are less in this parts only bean and greens are grown commonly.

The seventh zone is northern zone. This part of hinterland runs parallel to Tiptur – Hiriyur Road. On both sides of the road there are a few villages in the northern part viz., Annapur, Byranayakanahalli, Manikikere, Sorthavalli, Harisamudra, Hurdikalli and Halukurike. This does not go beyond taluk boundary and length is limited to 15 Kms only.

North zone is also less quantity Vegetable supply area. Because some villages are situated in water dividing area others are in rain shadow regions. Another important reason is that this part is full of hard rock. Rarely available groundwater is used for the general need of farmers. Within coconut cultivation, here and there, greens, beans, snake gourd, field gourd are cultivated and small amount is supplied to the Tiptur town.

The eighth and last zone is North-Eastern zone of vegetable hinterland of Tiptur town. This zone starts from Bennayakanahalli and runs along Tiptur, Chikkanayakanahalli road. Important villages are Chikkamarphanahalli, Doddamaraphanahalli, Eeralagere, Gopalanahalli, Makalli, Kalhakere, Shettikere, Sasalu. This zone extends to 18 Kms. from the Tiptur town.

Brinjal, beans, bitter gourd, snake gourd, bottle gourd, drumstick, chilies, and coriander green, and curry leaves, amaranath leaves are common in this zone.

The North – east zone is not as rich as south-east and south zone in vegetable supply. But it is not too poor like the north and northwest. The recently development of drip irrigation in coconut gardens has resulted in vanishing water feeding. Hence vegetable cultivation has reduced.

The total area of vegetable supply zone of the town is 1,784.9 Sq. Km. Even though this town has a better agricultural hinterland it depends up on areas outside the hinterland for certain varieties of vegetables for example Hassan, Chickkamagalur, Tumkur, Holenarasipura, Chitradurga, Tarikere, Kadur, Shimoga, Davanagere, Poona, Ranebennur and Bijapur. These places supply, especially, onion, garlic, ginger, peas, green chillies, Knoll-Knol, capsicum, and carrot. Similarly, this town sends some vegetables to different places. For example beans, tomatoes, greens and snake gourd. Some other vegetables are sent to Hassan, Shimoga, Bangalore, Arasikere, Hindupura, and Ananthpura.

Fruits and Flower Supply Zone

All urban settlements have sizeable service area or hinterland from which they draw raw materials including food items like vegetables, fruits, flowers and milk. These are essential items for the towns and cities as they are the central places for non-agricultural activities. In these modern days with a variety of transportation facilities, towns and cities get these agricultural raw materials and food items from near and far – off areas. It all depends up on the towns needs which in turn depend up on the population size, economic strength and taste and culture of people.

In this sub section on the study of hinterland of Tiptur town, an attempt in being made to study the nature and extent of fruits and flower supply in the hinterland of Tiptur town in 1998-1999.

Fruits:

To study the Flowers and Fruits supply zone, 200 farmers, 10 wholesale fruit merchants, 30 retail fruits and flower merchants have been personally interviewed. Figure No. 5.12 and 5.13 show the Fruits and Flower supply zone of Tiptur town. This zone is almost similar to the shape of milk supply zone, but it is bigger than the milk supply zone.

There are eight wholesale fruit sellers and twelve wholesale Banana Mandies (centres of collection and disposal), which are located in Pete area. Tiptur town’s wholesale merchants also supply fruits to other towns like Turuvekere, Chikkanayakanahalli, K.B. Cross, Huliyar, Honavalli, Mathigatta, Gandasi and to other small markets. In Tiptur town there are 15 retail shops and about 100 vendors who sell them through push carts. Retail shops are located on main – roads of the town like B.H. Road, Doddapete road and Bus stand area.

Flower:

There are one wholesale and twenty retail flower merchants in Tiptur. Doddapete road and Bus stand area share 50% each in flowers selling, because there are ten flower shops in each place. About 60 to 70% of flowers are supplied by local formers. Rest of the flowers comes from Bangalore, Tumkur, Doddaballapura (Sugandaraja) Sira, and other places.

In the east of the town Flowers and Fruits supply zone is extends to about 25 Kms parallel to Bangalore -  Honnavara Highway and Miraj – Bangalore railway line. About sixty villages of Tiptur, Chikkanayakanahalli, Gubbi and Turuvekere taluks serve by supplying flowers and fruits. Banana is the prime fruit. Mango, sapota, jack fruit, custard apple, papaya are also supplied. Kanakambra, kakada, jasmine, buttons, dahlia, marigold, rose common flowers locally grown. Kibbonahalli is the important fruits and flowers collection centre of this zone. Hindaskere, Huchagondanahalli, Kotanayakanahalli, Karadi, Banasandra, Kuppadu, Nitturu, Sampige, Beerasandra, and other villages supply fruits and flowers to Tiptur town market.

South- Eastern part of fruits and flower supply zone is covered by Kasba and Nonvinakere hobli villages and some of the border villages of Turuvekere. Villages at a distance of about 20 Kms from Tiptur town come under this part of fruits and flowers supply zone. About 35 villages in this direction come under fruits and flower supply zone. Again, banana is the largest produced Fruit in this part. After 1996 some villages of this part have been irrigated by the channel water of Hemavathi Project. These results in increasing of growth of banana and flowers. Mogra, Knakambra marigold are the flowers regularly supplied to Tiptur. Jack fruit, Custered apple, Mango are grown and supplied to Tiptur market.

The south zone of fruits and flower supply is quite long and wide because of three reasons. Firstly, there of Forty-eight Kms distance in between Tiptur and Channarayanapatna. In the middle of this long and wide area of fruits and flower production there is no other big market. Secondly, this part of land is comparatively good with enough in water to grow horticultural crops which is being done. Thirdly, Tiptur has created an attraction for these agro produces. Farmers who come to Tiptur to sell dry copra also are engaged in bringing fruits and flowers. This part of fruits and flower supply zone extends to about thirty to thirty five Kms from Tiptur town.

South – west part of fruits and flower supply zone is combined with the villages, which are located on both sides of Tiptur – Hassan road. Villages up to 25 Kms from the town in this direction come under the zone of flower and fruits supply zone. Villages of both Tiptur and Arasikere Taluk supply fruits and flowers. This part supplies banana, jackfruits, watermelon, guoas, sapota, bullocks heart, clustered apple, papaya and flowers such as rose, kanakambra, marigold, mogra etc. lingadahalli, Tadasoor, Bannihalli, Chindenahalli, Kemalu, Gandasi and other villages come under this zone. To about 30 Kms of distance the villages from Tiptur town come under fruits and flower supply zone.

The western part of Fruits and flower supply zone includes villages of Tiptur and Arasikere taluks. It extends to about 18 Kms. In the middle of this western part B.H. road passes between Tiptur and beyond Arasikere. It plays an important role. Elevated upland of this part is suitable only for the production of dry crops like Ragi and some grams, and level land is rather little in this side. On plain lands Banana and Flowers are grown. In uplands clustered apple, jack fruits and mango are grown. Compared to the south, east, south- east amount of supply from this part is less because production depends on poor soil water. Secondly, both Tiptur and Arasikere towns are within 25 Kms of distance. Therefore, they have to share the products. About 16 villages serve by supplying flowers and fruits in this part. Madihalli, Madenoor, Gowdanakatte, Konehalli, Nagthihalli, Siddapura, Belegumba, and surrounding villages are supplying fruits and flowers. Rose, Mogra, Buttons are important among the flowers.

Honnavalli and Kasaba hoblis’ villages are found in the north – western part of fruits and flower supply zone. Vasudenarahalli, Kobri Doddayyanapalya, Gudigondanahalli, Thimlapura, Bommalapura, Honnnavalli, Hanumathapura and surrounding villages up to 15 Kms from Tiptur town in this direction play an important role in the supply of fruits and flowers. Mango, banana, jack fruit, custard apple, sapota are commonly supplied. Rose, Mogra, Dahlia flowers come to Tiptur town’s market in a small quantity.

As different fruits are grown in different climates, all the places and towns are interdependent on friuts. In this context, fruit supply zone extends all over the country. Apple is from Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Grapes from Maharastra, Musumbi from kolar district, Bangalore and Andra Pradesh, Guava from Chikkaballapura and Bangalore, Oranges from Saklespura, Hassan, Chickmangalur and Shimoga, Pineaple from Malnad region.

The northern part of fruits and flower supply zone extends to about 20 Kms and some times Banana supplies come from villages of Hosadurga taluk which is not marked on the map (because of the low quantity supplied). Flowers are supplied by nearby villages. Harismudra, Byranayakanahalli, Sarthvalli, Mankikere, Halkurke, Manjunathapura, Mothighatte and surrounding villages supply fruits and flowers. This part is also a poor supplier of fruits and flowers because day by day there is an extension of coconut plantations on this side. The limited amount of surface and underground water is not sufficient to grow Banana and flower. Hence, in recent years, growing of Banana and flowers is on the decline where as Mangos and jackfruits are being supplied steadily. Recently a voluntary organization (BALF) has developed Mango garden at Manjunathapura village. It has converted wasteland of the villages into a Mango garden. Poor villagers have got the benefit and have become fruit growing farmers. This village supplies a large quantity of Mangoes than any other village from this part of fruits hinterland.

The north-eastern part is covered by the villages of both Tiptur and Chikkanayakanahalli taluks. Tiptur-Chikkanayakanahalli road is the chief road which helps in the transportation of agricultural products to the town. This part supplies important fruits like banana, jackfruit, custard apples and watermelon. Mogra, Kanakambra, marigold, Dahlia are come to the town market. Mogra and Kanakambra flowers grow in the shade of coconut trees; therefore they are being supplied regularly. Edenahalli, Kalkere, Eralagere, Gopaladahalli, Shettykere, Sasalu, makahalli and other villages supply Banana and other fruits. Villages which are 20 Kms away from Tiptur are under the Fruits and Flowers zone of Tiptur town.

Milk Supply Zone

Milk is a necessary drink from child to old man. It is well known as Amrutha since early Vedic period. Today, through dairy, it has become one of the major economic activities.

Tiptur has created its own Milk Supply Zone. Most parts of Milk Supply Zone extend in and around the villages of the town (see figure no. 5.14 and figure no. 5.15). Study has shown that the Milk Supply Zone extends to some parts outside the taluk boundary. Even though the extension of this zone is comparatively smaller than the other zones, the Milk Supply Zone around Tiptur town is not significant. Tiptur town gets milk from co-operative milk societies and Tumkur District Dairy.

In order to study the hinterland of Milk Supply Zone of Tiptur town 200 individual milk sellers of different parts of the hinterland and all the milk dairies of the town have been intervened. Based on this information Milk Supply Zone of Tiptur town has been drawn. Totally, about, 1,096.8 sq. Kms of land comes under the Milk Supply Zone.

In 1999 the taluk cow census under taken by dairy authorities. According to that, there were 6,777 Buffaloes and the total yield per day was 8,399 liters where average yield per buffalo was 1.2 liters. In the same year, total number of cross breed cows was 847 and the total yield per day was 2,664 liters, yield per animal was 3.15 liters. Non-descript local cows were about 7575 in number and the total yield per day was 5741 liters, with in average yield per animal of 0.76 liters.

From the study it can be seen that, the Milk Supply Zone can be divided into two division’s viz., (1) Within the town limits (2) outside the town limits. Within the town limit, villages which were merged with the town limits in 1996 are important producers of milk. Some parts of the old town also produce and supply milk, which is in meager quantity. In all, there are over 174 cowsheds (dairy) found in the town. Density of cowshed distribution is more in Maranagere village part of the town. 43 cowsheds are located here. As there are a significant number of families of agriculturists and agricultural labourers in this village (part of town limits) animal husbandry has also developed with farming. Milk producers of this part sell milk within this village (part of town) and also other parts of the town. The second important area within the town limit is ward No. 22. in this ward, Goragondanahalli and Playa villages have been included under town limits. There are about 40 cow-shed. Kanchagatta village in the town limits stands third in Milk supply where there are 28 cow-sheds (dairy). The rest of about 41 cow-sheds are distributed over other parts of the town. The individual production of milk in the town limits by the dairies varies from 1 to 60 liters. In the late 1980s and 1990s, the town’s dairies suffered due to water scarcity and shortage of both green and dry grass. Hence, some of the dairies have been closed in the subsequent years.

Outside the town Milk Supply Zone extends in all directions and the study has shown that the Shape of the Milk Supply Zone resembles a table tennis bat (see figure no. 5.14 and 5.15)

The eastern expansion of Milk Supply Zone is longer that other because it has both road and railway transportation facility. Here milk is supplied as early as possible to the town due to a higher frequency of vehicles and through less expensive railway transportation. Secondly, the demand for milk is more in Tiptur town than locally. Therefore, a number of Tiptur and Turuvekere villages come under Milk Supply Zone in the eastern part. About 22 villages in this direction supply milk to Tiptur town. Hucchgondahahalli, Bommenehallim Jackannahallky, Thimmalapura, Beligere, Kibbanahalli, Karadi, Kuppalu, Shettyhalli Haraluguppe, Madlihalli Tiptur Taluk and Bommalapura, Hosahalli, javarihalli, Venkatapura, Somalapura, kallaghatta, Hulisandra, Banasandra and other villages of Turuvekere Taluk come under the Eastern Milk Supply Zone. These villages are located on both sides of the railway line and B.H. Road.
The south-eastern Milk Supply Zone has developed parallel to Yediyoor-Tiptur road. It extends to about 15 Kms in length, koppa, Yadagarahalli, Belagarhalli, Nagaragatta, Eechanooru, Acharapalya, Eechannooru Kavalu, Halkatte, kemballu and other surrounding villages supply milk to Tiptur town. This zone is important as far as the quantity of milk is concerned because irrigation water, green fodder etc have helped farmers to produce more milk.

The Southern Milk Supply Zone is spread along the Tiptur – Channarayapatna road and this part of Milk Supply Zone is wider than the other parts. It has reached about 25 Kms from the town. This part of the milk hinterland consists of more number of villages, because in between Tiptur and Channarayapatna, there is no other township in 48 Kms distance. Milk sellers have go to Channarayapatna or come to Tiptur town. Therefore, more number of village have included in the Milk Supply Zone of Tiptur town. After 1996 more number of the villages of this part has been irrigated by Hemavathi project. This facility has also encouraged dairy development. Havenahalli, Anogondanahalli, Hosahalli, Kergodi, Rangapura, Ballekatte, Jayapura, sugoor and villages of Tiptur Taluk, Karehalli, Navilli, Adhihalli, Chowvenahalli Jakkanahalli, K.Byrapura, Navile, Thimlapura, of Channarayapatna Taluk are important villages supplying milk to Tiptur town.

The south-west Milk Supply Zone is developed along Tiptur Hassan road. This linear pattern Milk Supply Zone extends to about 15 Kms length. This part of the zone suffers from water scarcity even though there is some dairy development. Lingadahalli, Chattanalli, Honnenahalli, Chattanalli, Honnenahalli, Bennanahalli, Lakkihalli, Chindenahalli, Shankaranahalli, Tadasooru, Kallahalli are the important villages supplying milk. Most of the milk sellers use bicycles as a mode of transportation as production is small.

Western zone is spread along B.H. Road and railway line between Tiptur and Arasikere. Most of this part is water dividing area and also an elevated part. Hence during summer, this part particularly suffers from the non availability of water. Therefore, very low villages supply milk this part. This zone is limited to 10-12 Kms in length, because neighbouring taluk Arasikere has also captured some villages. Madihalli, Madenoor, Nagathihalli, Singenahalli, Margonahalli, are important villages. The nearness of other towns and poor facilities to some extent, have influenced the extent of milk hinterland to the west.

The north-west part is also a poor part of Milk Supply Zone. It is limited to an extent of 10 Kms from the town. Gollarahatti, Vasudevarahalli, K.D. Palya, Gudugondanahalli, Thimlapura, are the important villages. Reasons for the insignificant number of villages in this part are scarcity of water and fodder problems.

To the north of the town runs the Huliyar road and connects various villages of Tiptur and Chikkanayakanahalli taluks in the Milk Supply Zone. Byranayakanahalli, Manikere, and Sarthavalli are the important villages of Tiptur taluk. Mathighatta and some of the villages around Chikkanayakanahalli taluk also supply milk in a small quantity. In this direction, village’s up to a distance of 20 Kms supply milk. Private busses and bicycles are the main modes of transport used in supplying milk. Compared to East and South zone, north zone supplies less quantity of milk as the availability of underground and surface water in these villages in insignificant.

North-eastern zone of milk supply has developed by depending on Tiptur, Chikkanayakanahalli road, as means of transportation to supply milk to the town. Edenahalli, Bennayakanahalli, Mise Thimmanahalli, Chikkamarapanahalli, Kalakere, Earalgere, of Tiptur taluk and Gopaldahalli, Shettikere and a few surrounding villages of Chikkanayakanahalli taluk come under the Milk Supply Zone of Tiptur town. This zone extends to about 15 Kms from Tiptur.

Besides milk coming from the above mentioned villages, there is another indirect source of milk supply to fulfill the demand of milk of Tiptur town that is Tumkur District Milk Production Co-operative society union. Under this organization, in Tiptur taluk, there are 47 Co-operative milk societies functioning at present (2001). They collect milk from 148 villages out of total 231 villages of the taluk. The collected milk is supplied to Tiptur town. Hence, 48 Co-operative societies indirectly supply milk to the town. In other words as Milk Supply comes from this dairy source, it may be said that the Milk Supply Zone extends to almost entire taluk and district. For, milk is collected from all the taluk societies, and after processing, is redistributed in Tiptur, Tumkur and other towns of Karnataka and beyond (Dairy by – products).

Among the 48 Tiptur taluk Milk Producers Co-operative Societies, seven societies are women Co-operative societies; out of seven, six societies are adapted under STEP (Support to Training, Employment Programme) by Government of India. Eighteen societies have facilities of first aid centres; nine societies have their own buildings, six societies have their own telephone connections; and three are have television. Thirty societies are given loan to purchase cows, 213 persons are benefited by Loan (1992-2000) or further details see table no. 5.1

Table No. 5.1
Details about Milk in Tiptur taluk and Town

Year Animal Milk Production (in lts)
1999 No. of Buffaloes 6777
1999 Yield per day of Buffaloes 8399
1999 Yield per Buffalo 1.2
1999 No. of Cross breed Cows 847
1999 Yield per day of Cross breed Cows 2664
1999 Yield per Cross breed Cow 3.15
1999 No. of Local Cows 7575
1999 Yield per day of local Cows 5741
1999 Yield per animal of local Cows 0.76
2001 No. of co-operative milk societies 48
2001 No. of Women milk Co-operative milk Societies 7
2001 No. of Milk Societies Adapted by STEP 6
2001 No. of Societies having own building 9
2001 Milk supply from District Dairy to the town per day (average) 3250
2001 Annual milk supply from District Dairy to the town (average) 9916250
2001 No. of private dairies with in the town limit 174
2001 No. of Dairies in ward No. 27 43
2001 No. of Dairies in ward No. 22 (Goragondanahalli area) 40
2001 No. of Dairies in ward No. 26 (Kanchagatta area) 28
2001 Rest of the town 63

Sources: (1)Census report of Taluk Co-operative Society (2)Personal Data collection

Transportation Hinterland of Tiptur Town

Various factors of urban settlements such as location and growth owe a great deal to the aspects of transportation. Transportation forms the lifeline and leads to further growth of the urban settlement, like the present settlement, which is under consideration. They further get strengthened by the resource base of the town and its hinterland. The discussion about transport hinterland proceeds; one can see how Tiptur town has copra, a unique agricultural product, which has played a significant role in the growth of the town and its hinterland. Tiptur is a land locked town being a part of Tumkur district. The tentacles of road transport have radial expansion. The town is benefited by the broad gauge conversion since 1995 as directly men and materials (copra and other coconut products) can reach any part of the country. There is an urgent need to complete the Gadag – Shollapur broad guage route and diversion of Karnataka. Express (daily train to Delhi) via Tiptur. It is not a far fetched imagination, because this train not only touches Tiptur enroute to Delhi and Bangalore, but also does justification to the have of the train. Along with Tiptur many towns in the heart of Karnataka avail this accessibility to Delhi and back. In turn Tiptur too gets direct rail services to places on major trunk route of the country (Bangalore – Delhi).

The present study of transportation hinterland is limited to transport of passengers only. This study (travel service zone) of Tiptur town includes Rail, Bus and other road transportation services (See Figure no.5.16, 5.17, and 5.18).

Railway:

Tiptur town enjoys good Railway service. It has an important Railway station on Bangalore-Hubli brood gauge of the southern Railway. Westward the railway line from Tiptur proceeds to places like Hubli, Goa, Miraj, Poona, Bombay, Ajmir, Ahmadabad, and even Delhi. Towards east, Banashankari, Karadi, Aralaguppe, Banasandra, Ammasandra, Sampige road, Nittur, Gubbi, Mallasandra, and Tumkur are the stations between Tiptur and its district head quarters Tumkur. Further, it leads to Bangalore. Bangalore the state capital is the prima destination of passengers (See fig. no. 5.18) from Tiptur. The next is the district head quarters that is Tumkur. Towards west and North-west, important stations are Arasikere, Kodoor, Birur, Bhadravathi and Shimoga. After Birur junction the railway route leads to Davanegere, Hubli, Belagaum, Poona, Bombay, Ahmadabad, Jodpur, Ajmir and Delhi. As the Bangalore city junction is connected to almost all the stations of our country, Tiptur town has rather easy access to most parts of our country by Rail.

Bus-Service Zone:

Bangalore-Honnavara road passes in the middle of the Tiptur Town. This road which was a State Highway earlier – has been converted into a National Highway 206 at present due to its necessity and importance. To the west and North-west, this road connects Tiptur with Arasikere, Kadur, Birur, Bhadravathi, Sagar, Kemmannagundi, Shimoga, Honnavara, Karavar, and surrounding places. The frequency of Bus service in this direction is helping the public in their speedy and easy travel. Daily around 155 K.S.R.T.C. Buses and 14 private buses run in this direction on B.H. Road. From Tiptur towards Bangalore, it has the highest frequency of bus service than other places in the western part of Tumkur district. Daily, about 163 K.S.R.T.C. and 14 private busses run on the eastern side B.H. Road connects K.B. Cross, Gubbi, and Tumkur, Bangalore and different places of Kolar district and even beyond. Relatively good frequency bus service zone of Tiptur town covers 3, 02,788 sq. Kms.

B.H. Road plays an important role in goods Transport where daily about 400 to 500 trucks move in this road through the Tiptur town. Parts of Hassan, Chikkamagalur, Udupi, Chitradurga and Turuvekere, entire Uttar Kannada and Shimoga district depend on this part of B.H. Road in the transportation of goods to Bangalore.

To the North and Northeast of the town Tiptur-Davanagere road serves the public. This road connects Halkurike, Mathighatta, Huliyar, Hiriyur, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Hosadurga, Srirangapura, Sira, and Madhugiri, Gowribidanur and surrounding villages and towns. About 40 private and 5 K.S.R.T.C. buses provide their one way service daily. Two way service comes to about 85-90 buses. Some of the peak hour buses carry the passengers in this rout farmer especially coconut growers who transport copra to Tiptur town market are commonly seen to be traveling both in and on the buses. Farmers of Chikkanayakanahalli, Hosadurga, Holalkere, Hiriyur, Sira, Kadur, Tarikere, Chitraduraga, taluks depends up on this road for their business, particularly copra. It is important to note that this road serves Mysore- Bellary, Mysore-Hospet and Mysore-Gulbarga buses.

The third important bus service zone is Y.T. Road (Yediyur-Tiptur). This road starts in south-East direction of the Tiptur town. Further it leads to Novinakere, Turuvekere, Mayasandra, Yedayur, and (Pilgrimage place) Nagamangala, Mandya, Pandavapura, Mysore and surrounding places. Daily about 25 private buses run on this road. Some buses have a short distance frequency of 5 to 10 trips in one way. Similarly about 15 K.S.R.T.C. buses provide their one way service on this road.

After the opening up of Hemavathi canal water supply to the Turuvekere taluk, movement of vehicles and the quantum of passengers on this road have increased.

Since Tiptur is a well known educational centre, day by day students of different parts are attracted by the town. The students flow towards the town has caused more frequency of different transport to and from the town. From the last two decades a number of schools and basic educational system has grown rapidly. Theses Basic educational institutions are attracting students from surrounding 1 village. This has also caused the raise in passenger flow.

To the North-East of the town, a road leads to Chikkanayakanahalli. This is another private bus dominated road like Tiptur- Halkurike- Davanagere road. This road leads to Settikere, Chikkanayakanahalli, Hagalavadi, Huliyar, Sira, Gowribidanur, Bellary, Madhugiri, Davanagere, Hindupur and Tumkur. About 27 buses run daily in this Chikkanayakanahalli road. Another special characteristic feature of this road bus service is that it has inter-state bus service. Hindupur, a town of Andrapradesh is connected by bus service with Tiptur.

Most of the passengers who get bus service in this way are farmers because more number of buses is shuttle buses and they collect and connect farmers with Tiptur and other towns.

To the southwest of the town Tiptur-Hassan road provides good bus service. This is a road in good condition is next to the B.H. road, and leads to Gandasi, Dudda, Hassan, Sakaleshpur, Mangalore, Mercara, Daramasthala, subramanya, Belur, etc. On this way district head quarters is situated hence, the more attraction of that city. A similar number of incoming passengers found are coconut formers and vegetable growers having more than others with Tiptur town. Hence, they are users of travel service. Daily, 22 K.S.R.T.C. buses and 15-20 private vehicles run on this road.

Towards the south of tiptur town, a road leads to Channarayapattana and further, to Kikkeri, K.R.Pete, Pandavapur, Sreerangapattana, and Mysore and surrounding places. The world famous Sravanabelagola and (Krishnaraj Sagar) Brindavan Garden also have bus service on these roads. This road service is dominated by K.S.R.T.C. buses and private vans, minibuses, and mini trucks. Daily about 30 K.S.R.T.C. buses and 20-25 private vehicles give serve the public.

The North-Western part of the town provides a road leading to Honnavally. Most of the buses running on this road serve the farmers, because there many towns which are not big but are directly connected through this road. Thimlapura, Honnavally, J.C.Pura, Balavanerulu, Kamasanudra, Holalkerke, etc. are the important places on this road. it is again a private bus dominated road; many villages are served by the private buses in the route. 15 private and 3 K.S.R.T.C. buses provide service. Another importance of this before 1886 Honnavalli was the taluk head quarters. So this road service is one ofhe old road service line. Honnavalli surrounding villages are also served by 10 private buses via Tiptur, Bidregudi and Honnavalli.

Lastly, there are two short roads which give shuttle bus service to the southern villages of the town. One among them is Rangapura road. Because of the establishment of Rangapuramutt, this road became an important village road. Hosahalli, Rangapura, Dasarighatta, Ganganaghatta, and surrounding villages receive the travel service of the Tiptur town. Both K.S.R.T.C. and private van transportation operate on this short and narrow line. Parallel to the Rangapura road, there is the Tiptur Anagondanahally road. This is the shortest bus service road of the town. It joins Anagondanhally, Keregodi and surrounding villages.

In addition to the above main road travel service, there are some sub roads providing bus service operating via Goragondanahally, Bagur, Navile, Santheshivara, Didaga, Masanaghatta, Bajgoor, Madenoor, Kenkere, Shivara, Aralaguppe, Halkurike, Buradeghatta, Mankikere, Yadavanahalli, Kembalu, Hasndankere, Karadi, Kaidalu, Bagevalu, Hirisave. These are the important villages served by sub road mini bus service.

Important Daily Bus routes:

The Tiptur-Hassan bus starts at 5-45 a.m. From Tiptur it moves via, Chindanhalli, Gandasi, Dudda and finally reaches Hassan, it will return to Tiptur and halt at 8-30 pm. Another Tiptur-Hassan bus starts at the same line but runs via a different road, that is, Chindenahally, Kenkere, Gandasi, Dudda, and Hassan. The Tiptur-Mysore bus starts from Tiptur at 5-30 a.m. and moves via Turuvekere, Naganangala, Pandavapura, Srirangapattana and Mysore and returns and halts at 11 p.m at Tiptur. Tiptur Turuvekere, bus starts at 6 a.m. and runs through Nonavanakere, and reaches Turuvekere. It will come back and halt at Tiptur at 10 p.m. Tiptur-Bangalore bus starts at 6 a.m. and moves via K.B. Cross, Gubbi, Turuvekere and reaches Bangalore. It will come back to Tiptur at 8.30 p.m. and halt. Another Tiptur-Bangalore bus starts at 6 p.m. and moves via Didaga, Dabbaghatta, Bellur-cross, and to Bangalore. This bus returns at 8 p.m. and halts at Tiptur. Early in the morning at 6-30 Tiptur-Banavara bus starts and moves via Konehalli, Aradikere, Bendekere, and reaches Banavara. After 4 trips between Tiptur and Banavara, it will return to Tiptur at 9.30 in the night.

In addition to the aforesaid K.S.R.T.C. buses, a considerable number of private buses ply on some routes. At present (2001) about 15-18 buses halt at Tiptur private bus stand. They start their journey in the morning to their various destinations and return to Tiptur on the same day. Sreekanteshware bus leaves for Mysore via Turuveker, Nagamangala, Pandavapura and returns. Sree Ganesh bus goes to Bellari via Chikkanayakanahalli, Huliyar, Hiriyur, Challakere, and returns in the night. Srilakshmi bus goes to Emmedoddi via Halkurike, Govinapura, Belagoor, Yagati, Kadoor, and comes back to Tiptur in the night Srikanteshwara and Kamakshi, buses leaves for Tumkur, via K.B. Cross, Nittur, Gubbi, and returns back to Tiptur. Two Siddeshwara buses serve via Huliyar, Sir Madhugiri and Gowribidanoor and come back in the night in the same route. On this route, there is another bus called Prakash Motor Services. Siddeshwara bus goes to Hosadurga, via Huliyar, Sreerampura, SMS bus to Hiriyoor via Mathighatta and Huliyar. About 5-7 buses halt at Turuvekere. In this way, private buses halting at Tiptur connect Chikkanayakanahalli, Hosadurga, Holakere, Davanagere, Hiriyoor, Sira, Madhugiri, Gowribidanur, Turuvekere and with other neighbouting districts.

Table No. 5.2
Important places connected by bus service

Sl.No Name of the terminus Approximate distance in kms. Frequency of Bus Service (No. of Trips)
1970 2001
A K.S.R.T.C
1 Bangalore city 144 12 160
2 Tumkur town 72 4 11
3 Bhadravati Town 118 1 144
4 Shimoga city 133 4 141
5 Jog Falls 240 1 4
6 Bhatkal town 321 1 3
7 Sira town 281 1 3
8 Karwar town 396 1 1
9 Mysore city 135 4 8
10 Chikmagalur town 104 4 10
11 Chitradurga town 134 1 -
12 Sringeri town 183 1 4
13 Mangalore city 224 1 3
14 Kunigal town 83 2 5
15 Holenarasipur town 77 1 0
16 Hirisave village 77 2 4
17 Hassan town 51 4 25
18 Sravanbelagola town 48 1 1
19 Debbeghatta village 45 2 6
20 Arsiker town 25 13 9
21 Honnavalli village 19 3 4
B Private Bus Services
1 Hindupur town of Andhra Pradesh 216 1 2
2 Chitradurga town 158 2 4
3 Kemmangundi (Hill station) 145 1 1
4 Method village 120 1 2
5 Hosadurga town 98 2 18
6 Hiriyur town 93 2 5
7 Birur town 69 1 4
8 Bclagur village 77 2 6
9 Madhugiri town 135 2 9
10 Hulliyar village 50 2 42
11 Davamagere 200 - 16

Source: Personal Survey and K.S.R.T.C. Report.

Copra Collection Zone:

Each town / city owes its existence to a set of functions bearing special significance. In turn these functions have sizable service areas or hinterlands. In Karnataka also one can see such urban settlements. Chikkamagalur for Coffee, Hassan for Potato, Mysore, Kolegale, Ramnagara are for silk, Bangalore for information technology. Similarly cities and towns are engaged in a set of functions having their respective hinterlands.

From the present investigation, it has been found that this class III town Tiptur has a unique place in copra (dry coconut kernel) trade. It has a wide collection zone in southern Karnataka. Also, it has earned a niche for itself in its distributional trade (See figure no. 5.19). So far, it has been regarded as a place of monopoly in copra trade supplying this commodity to different states of India and even export to some of the foreign countries through the North Indian wholesale traders.

To demarcate the copra collection zone, about 500 copra loaded vehicles, which enter the A.P.M.C. yard, have been enquired regarding places where the copra is loaded / collected. This information has been gathered in different seasons, to cover the entire year in order to get a clear picture of copra collection zone of Tiptur town. Secondly, fifty five commission agents who have contact with different places of farmers have been interviewed. Thirdly, to get additional information about the places of copra arrival A.P.M.C. authorities have also been interviewed.

Copra collection zone is the second widest hinterland of this town next only to the bus service zone. The coconut growing area is distributed from North to South in the central section Southern Karnataka. Copra collection zone also confines to North and South of Tiptur than in East-West direction. The study shows that it has occupied about 1,476.8 sq. Kms. areas of Tumkur, Hassan, Mandya, Chikkamagalore, Shimoga, and Chitradurga districts of Karnataka. See figure No. 5.19 in fact, about 95% of copra which arrives annually to APMC of Tiptur originates from this direction. The important Taluks are Gubbi, Turuvekere, Tiptur, Channarayapatna, Nagamangala, Hassan, Arasikere, Kadur, Tarikere, Holakere, Hosadurga, Hiriyur, Sira, Tumkur and Kunigal.

To the North, copra collection zone has extended to a long distance, (See figure No. 5.19). About 115 Kms. Long areas supply copra to Tiptur A.P.M.C., from this part including Tiptur, Chikkanayakanahalli, Hosadurga, Holalkere, Hiriyur and Chitradurga taluk. More than thirty villages of Tiptur and twenty eight of Chikkanayakanahalli are come under this direction’s copra collection zone. Halkurike, Mankikere, Gowdanakatte, kalkere, Muddenahalli and surrounding villages of Tiptur taluk, Madapura, Mathighatta, Handanakere, Baragoor, Thimlapura, Huliyar, Nandihalli, Gurvapura, Kenkere, Madhuvanahalli and surrounding twenty eight villages of Chikkanayakanahalli taluk are covered in copra collection. The neighbouting Chitradurga district has two taluks under copra collection zone. Hosadurga is another important taluk. About twenty villages of this taluk come under coconut collection zone, from the Northern part. Cikkabyladakere, kanchipura, Kittadalu, Mathodu, Arahally, Ittigehalli, Madadhakere, Doddaghatta and surrounding villages are included in this. Hiriyur taluk is also attracted by Tiptur A.P.M.C. in the copra trade. Due to insufficient water supply from Vanivilas sagar, a minor irrigation work of this area farmers have switched over to other crops like coconut cultivation and supply copra to Tiptur market. More than twenty five villages belong to this zone. Halemadanahalli, yalladakere, Katrikenahalli, Thavandi, Mallapanahallli, Bharmpura, Hulithottilu, Gannayakanahalli, and surrounding villages can be named. About thirty villages of Holakere and Chitradurga, Taluks also belong to this copra collection zone of Tiptur town. They have spread around Madduru, Bommanakatte, Hochaghatta, Amruthapura, Gonihosahalli, Shivaganga, Kakkenahalli and Singapura.

North-western part of copra collection zone has extended to about 112 Kms from Tiptur. Hundreds of villages and some towns of Tiptur, Arasikere, Kadur, Hosadurga, Holalkere, and Tarikere taluks belong to this zone. In Tiptur taluk, twenty one villages along Tiptur Honnavalli and further supply copra to Tiptur from this section of copra collection hinter land. Gudigonadnahalli, Alur, Honnavalli, Chikkahonnavalli, Baluvanerulu, Hulihalli and surrounding villages also belong to this zone. About thirty five villages of Arasikere taluks around Jayachamarajapura, Kamasamudra, Doddametikurke, Madalu, Kallugundi, Kanakatte and surrounding villages are reported as a part of copra collection zone. About thirty five villages of Hosadurga Taluk have traced around Garaga, Belagooru, Ballalasamudra, Neeragundha, Hosadurga town, Hebbalu and Ballekere as places supplying copra. Twenty two villages, including Holalkere town, have been traced as copra supplying places in this taluk. Villages like Ramagiri, Kanchipura, Rangapura, Sriramaghatte, Kalaghatte, Gundasamudra, Bommenahalli, are important places. North-western part also extends to Kadur and Tharikere Taluks. Twenty nine villages and kadur town come under copra collection zone. Panchanahalli, Singatakere, Keresanthe, Mathighatta, Ramanahalli, Bidire, Hallaghatte, Birur, Graje, Yagati, Hirenalllur, Hudegere, and other villages around them are important. Another taluk of Chikamagalore district, that is Tarikere, also supplies copra to Tiptur A.P.M.C. About sixteen villages around Ajjampura, Shivani, Hunaseghatte, Vithalapura, Bettadhahalli, Mallenahalli, Nandipura and Hadikere are important places of North – western part of Tiptur copra collection zone.

The North-Eastern part of copra collection zone, as it is quite familiar by now, has spread in the Taluk of Tiptur towards Chikkanayakanahalli, Sira and Gubbi, and has reach about 60 Kms. Tiptur taluk has about twelve villages around Bennayakanahalli, Eeralagere, Kallakere, Meesethimmanhalli, along Tiptur Chikkanayakanahalli road come under the zone of copra collection as most part of the Chikkanayakanahalli taluk is located in the North – East of Tiptur. More villages of this taluk belong to this part of copra collection zone (See figure No. 5.19). About seventy three villages are found in this zone. Important copra collecting places among them are, Settikere, Kurubarahalli, Honnebagi, Katrikehalli, Kandiker, Bellara, Dobbagunte, Guruvapure, Chikkabidara, Belavadi and surrounding villages. In Gubbi Taluk, under this Northern part, about twenty villages are seen around Hagalavadi. They are Iddlahalli, Machaladore, Ankasandra; Maranahalli etc. about fourteen villages of western Sira taluk around Bukkapatna, Neralgudda, Honnenahalli, Karemahadavenahalli have been found supplying copra to Tiptur APMC. The distance, comparatively, is less. Due to increased aridity, and seasonal crops like groundnut, cultivation increases. Off late, where well and tank irrigation is available, people have planted a lot of coconut trees on the borders of their land. It is also not uncommon to see that due to the rise in the problem of labourers, farmers have started planting coconut trees. It is hoped that in the coming years theses will have increased copra supply.

The eastern part of copra collection zone is another important part. In this part, the role of Gubbi taluk dominates in the supply of copra than the home taluk and others. After the introduction of tube-well and provision of canal water to Gubbi tank since 1996, it is leading in supply of coconuts than other taluks in this part of copra collection zone. About 120 villages and Gubbi town form the copra collection zone. These places are Doddaguni, Haradakere, Nagasandra, Bettadahalli, and tippurr, Belvatha, Kaggere, Nallur, Lakkanahalli, Gubbi, Koppa, Madanahalli, Holeghatte, Gowripura and Hosakere. The copra supply zone is about seventy Kms long and the eastern part of it reaches the district head quarters Tumkur. In Tumkur taluk, thirty eight villages have been traced as copra supply areas around Ballagere, Bidaraketta, Halanur, Melekatte, Mudigere, Channehalli, Sorekunte and Areyooru.

About fifty two villages of Tiptur Taluks are covered by eastern part of copra collection zone. This is longest extension of the Tiptur taluk. It is one of the two directions which have both railway and road transport facilities. In all, about fifty two villages are found to supply copra which are Hindisgere, Huchugondanahalli, Kuppal, Aralaguppe, Jakkanahalli, Timmlapura, kibbnahalli, Hattana, Sidlehalli, Berasandra, Rajthadhripura etc. about thirty two villages of Turuvekere taluk belong to this part of copra collection zone. They are located around Neeragunda, Ramadihalli, Raghavadevanahalli, Sampige, Ammasandra, Heggere, Banasandra, and Kurubarahalli. About twelve villages of Chikkanayakanahalli taluk also fall into this zone around Halagona, Godekere, Jayachamarajapura, Thrbenahalli, Agondanahalli, and surrounding villages (See figure No. 5.19).

The South-eastern part extends to about sixty five Kms and beyond into Nagamangala, of Mandya taluk. It also consists of villages from Tiptur, Turuvekere, Kunigal and Gubbi Taluk. About thirty six villages like Karadalu, Belagarahalli, Nagaraghatta, Bochihalli, Nonavinakere, Vignasanthe, Albur, and Gungaramale of Tiptur taluk are found to come under this part. About 70% of the villages of Turuveker taluk come under the South-Eastern part of copra collection zone. The rest of the villages are in the Eastern part. They account for about 141 villages. These villages are located around Somanahalli, Kallakere, Aremaiienahalli, Kanathur, Dabbeghatta, Sanglapura, Mayasandra, Dhoddamalligere, Seegehalli, Ajjanahallim, Pura, Talakere and Mahavinahalli. More than fifty villages of Southern Gubbi taluk around Chandrashekarapura, Horakere, Mathikere, Belavadi, Nagasandra, Bukkasagara, Yalachihalli, Kallur, Mathighatta and surrounding villages have been included under this part of copra collection zone. In Nagamangala taluk, about fifty eight villages around Nagamannagala town, Honnenahalli, Chikkanahalli, Koppa, Bellur, Chunchanahalli, Bidarekere, Arakere, Bommenahalli, Kalladevarahalli, Bendiganavile, Haradanahalli, Mylarapatna and surrounding places come under this copra collection zone. In Kunigal taluk, about thirty villages around Nagasandra, Madikehalli, Gunnegere, Hulivana, Doddamadure, Yediyur, Tubinakere, have come into Tiptur’s copra collection zone.

The Southern copra collection zone extends to about eighty five Kms. from Tiptur, beyond Krishnarajpet of Mandya district. This is the part where three districts are involved, in the supply of copra Tiptur, villages of Tiptur (Tumkur) Channarayapatna, (Hassan) and Krishnarajpet (Mandya), in the home taluk, about thirty villages come to this part of copra collection zone. They are located around Hosahalli, Alonahalli, Dasarighatta, Sooguru, Jayapura, Hunaseghatte, keragodi and Dobbeghatta (See figure No. 5.19)

Channarayapatna taluk has the highest number of villages under copra collection zone. This part of copra hinterland has about 252 villages in different parts of the taluk sending copra of A.P.M.C. Tiptur. It is a gift of Hemavathi Project that large areas of this taluk have been irrigated. After irrigating for the last two decades, huge quantity of copra has started entering the Tiptur market.

About 252 villages have spread around Bagooru, Yeliyoor, Baragooru, Channrayapatna, Sravanavelagola, Dhadighatte, Mathighatta, Hirisave, Gowdagere, Chinnennahalli, Hosahalli, Nuggehalli, Santheshivara, kabbali, Didiga, Navile and karehalli. Since last one decade, villages of Mandya districts Pandavapura, Mandya and Maddur taluk are rapidly extending coconut cultivation Copra supply is increasing form this section. In Mandya district, K.R. Pete taluk is most important regarding copra collection for Tiptur. About twenty seven villages have been found under this section spread around Doddatharahalli, Goodehosahalli, Kikkrere, Mandagere, Makavalli, Kerekolale, Hosahalli, Barathipura, K.R. Pete and Madavinagodi.

The south- western zone is located along Tiptur-Hassan road and it extends to about forty five Kms. Villages of Tiptur, Arasikere, Channarayapatna and Hassan taluk have become a part of Tiptur’s copra collection zone. In tiptur taluk itself, nineteen villages are found supply copra. They have distributed around Lingadahalli, Halenahalli, Tadasur, Gurugadahalli, Bannihallim Besuge and Alulehalli. About fourteen villages of Channarayapatna around Bidre, Kembalu, and Holagerahalli of Channarayapatna taluk come under this zone. Arasikere taluk has fifty two villages around Kenkere, Hullekere, Yedavanahalli, Bidare, Chagachikere, Hegghatte, Gandsi, Bageshpura, Mothikere, Doddenahalli etc. the south – western part of copra collection zone includes Eastern part of Hassan taluk with villages such as Kittanakere, Attavara, and A. Hosahalli, Heragu, Dudda, Honnavara, Muthathi, Chikkakadaluru, Melagodu, Kudregundi, and it also consists of about 37 villages under Tiptur’s copra collection zone.

The western part of copra collection zone is limited in extent under Tiptur and Arasikere taluks. This part extends to about 55 Kms. along B.H. Road. In Tiptur taluk about thirteen villages come undr this zone which have spread around Madenur, Siddapure, Gowdanakatte, Krishnapura, Lakkihalli, Nagathihalli and Mathihalli. As Arasikere is also developing its own copra market fewer villages have come under copra collection zone from this part. Thirty eight villages have been traced out in this part from Arasikere taluk and they are distributed rather sparsely all over this section. Villages like Belagumba, Kodihalli, Talaluru, Aggunda, Kargunda,Undiganalu, Bandooru, Javagal, Arakere, Kallyadi, Doddanahalli, Haranahalli, Kellangere, Kurvanka and some other villagers are important in this part of copra collection zone.

Copra Distribution Zone:

So far, in this section, copra supply of collection from its hinterland has been discussed. Collected copra, both at A.P.M.C. and out side the A.P.M.C. by traders is exported by wholesalers to various parts of the country. Further, some amount of copra is also exported to foreign countries. About 75% of the area in India comes under copra distribution zone. In 1994 about 2, 76, 058 quintals of copra was exported form A.P.M.C. alone. In addition to this, every year, about hundreds of tons of copra is exported from out side the A.P.M.C. of Tiptur town. At present (2000-01), on an average, 25 to 30 trucks are carrying copra every day to North India. Wholesalers who receive copra from Tiptur can be seen in Maharastra, Gujarath, Rajasthan, Delhi, Punjab, Hariyana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, uttaranchal, uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Jarkhand and Assam States (See figure No. 5.20). Copra is further from there places exported to Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and other countries. In Maharastra state, Pune, Mumbai, Nagpur, Jalgaon and other western areas are important copra receiving areas. In Gujarath state, Surath and Ahmadabad are the main cities in this regard. In Rajasthan, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Ajmeer, Kota, Udayapur, Pali, Bikaner, and Alwar are redistribution centers of Tiptur copra and in Punjab, Amrithsar, Jalandar, Ludhiyana, Patiala, Pagwara, Hosiharpur, are important copra receiving centers. The northern part of North Indian copra distribution area can be seen in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are important. Tiptur A.P.M.C. copra distributional centers in central part of North India are spread in Delhi, Hariyana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Dellhi is one of the chief buying centers of copra. In Hariyana, Ambala is important. Deharadu, and Tanakpura are chief center of Uttaranchal State. The Tiptur copra distribution zone has occupied large areas in U.P. Agra, Barili, Kanpur, Lucknow, Hathrash, Aligarh, Camrauli, Meerut, Muzafarnager, Bulandshehr, Hapur, Rampur and Badovena. Indore,  Bhopal and Gwaliar, are the main buying centers. Eastern part of copra distributional area has spread in Bihar, west Bengal, Jarkhand, and Assam states. Patna, Gaya, Bhagalpur, Muzaffarpur, Jogabun, and Radol, are the main centres of Bihar state. Silture, Ranchi, Dhanbad are the main importing centres of Tiptur copra. West Bangal also comes under copra distributional zone of Tiptur. Calcutta in the South and Siliguri, in the Northern end imports copra’s from Tiptur.

Thus copra distribution zone of Tiptur town has extended to almost the entire country. This is also mainly because of copra taste and quality of Tiptur hinterland. Road and railway transportation facilities with broad gauge facility play an important role in the extension of copra distribution zone of Tiptur.

CULTURAL HINTERLAND:

Under this section aspects related to the delineation of hinterland are considered. They are related to socio-cultural aspects of Tiptur town, such as:
1.    Educational hinterland.
2.    Medical service area.
3.    Recreational (cinema) hinterland.
4.    Administrative hinterland.

When a town/city draws most of its requirements for sustenance, from economic aspects under these variables of cultural hinterland, mostly it dispenses or supplies goods and services. People from the surrounding countryside come to the town, which is a central place for these dependant rural settlements by virtue of its commanding location and of course with central goods and services. In this section an attempt has been made to demarcate and understand the extent of aforesaid hinterlands of selected social-cultural variables for Tiptur town for the year 1999-2000.

Educational Hinterland:

It is clear that in an urban settlement different land uses develop commonly called public utility land use. These types consist of land used for educational institutions right from schools in a town to colleges of different types and universities in big cities. In addition to these institutions, public utility land use includes the one that is used for parks and play grounds, theatres and recreational facilities as also the land used for government offices.

Educational institutions play an important role in building a healthy, civilized society. Today towns and cities of developed countries of the world have a variety of educational institutions. Some of the cities and towns are well known for imparting education since historic period. For example Oxford, Cambridge Nalanda, Varanasi and Shantinikethan. In Karnataka, Mysore, Dharwad, Bangalore, Mangalore, and other cities are playing an important role. Bangalore is internationally recognized as Silicon Valley of India through its achievement in computer and Information Technology education.

Within Karnataka, Tiptur is well known for its educational institutions despite being only a taluk headquarter. The importance that imaginative philanthropists and educationists of this town give to education can be gauged from the fat that a Higher Secondary School (matriculation) was established by them in the pre-independence period itself. Several educational institutions from pre-primary to the undergraduate levels, including technical - have been playing a prominent role in imparting knowledge to all sections of the society. Tiptur occupies the prime place among all the taluks of Tumkur district by having fourteen primary schools, eighteen higher primary schools, eleven high schools, eight pre-university colleges, three industrial Training Institutes, one polytechnic, three degree colleges and one engineering college in 2000-2001. These institutions have created a wide education service base in the town attraction students from and immediate hinterland.

It would not be an exaggeration to say that Kalpatharu Vidya Samsthe has been playing a leading role in the development of higher education in its hinterland. Founded in 1962 by the great philanthropist Sri Pallagatti Adavappa, the institution could reach its present heights largely due to the painstaking efforts and administrative skills of Sri. J.R. Mahalingappa, the founder Principal. It is significant that in a small from like Tiptur an institution like Kalpatharu Vidya Samsthe has been able to ably manage educational institutions from the Montessori to the undergraduate levels including the needs of students of Humanities, Science and Commerce streams.

To know the extent of educational hinterland in the current investigation, three first grade colleges, one engineering college, four high schools, five primary schools, including convents, have been consulted. Data has been taken from their admission registers for different periods. On the basis of this primary data hinterland of Tiptur towns is delineated.

Educational hinterland of Tiptur town has spread in an area of over 8140.56 sq. Kms. This is the third widest hinterland in the present study only next to bus service and copra collection zones. A cursory observation shows that expansion of this hinterland is more towards the South East to North West direction (See figure no. 5.21). It is spread over a distance of more than 140 to 150 Kms. Pre high school education service zone is more or less confined to Tiptur town itself. Some of the reputed schools [English medium] get students from a distance of 10-15 Kms around Tiptur. Ex. Nonavinakere, Shettikere, Kibbonahalli, Halkurike etc.

If we come to high school service area, students come to Tiptur from a distance of 15-20 Kms and it is often little larger along the arterial roads because of the presence of good bus service roads radiating from Tiptur like Huliyar, Kaechalli, Nonavinakere, Gandasi, Aralaguppe etc.

Pre-university colleges’ hinterland is far more and crosses even taluk and district boundary owing to the popularity of Kalpatharu Educational Institutions and other related educational services which are available in Tiptur town. The hinterlands have been summarized below:

In the North to South direction the hinterland extends from 85 to 100 Kms. In East West direction it is 70 to 80 Kms.

It is Because of Gubbi and Tumkur, which also have a good number of educational institutions attracting the students. Hence, the hinterland is limited in this direction. From North West hinterland students are attracted by Tiptur even though the distance is more because of the following reasons.

1)    The villages and taluks in these parts suffer from a non-availability of good educational institutions in their towns.
2)    Kalpatharu institution has a good reputation since four decades. Hence it attracts more students from this part.
3)    Tiptur town has a number of hostels with some of them providing board and lodging facilities free of cost or with very nominal charges.
4)    Tiptur town has a better bus service.

In a way if we come to technical educational hinterland the extent is not only confined to the marked area, but it also extends all over the country. It is mainly due to the establishment of a popular engineering college in the town. The following table provides a picture of students admitted to Kalpatharu Institute of Technology during 1999-2000.

Table No. 5.3
Student strength during 1999-2000 in Kalpatharu Institute of Technology (kit)

State No. of students %
Karnataka 92 81.4
Kerala 1 0.9
West Bengal 10 8.8
Andra Pradesh 6 5.3
Jammu & Kashmir 1 0.9
Orissa 1 0.9
Madya Pradesh 1 0.9
Goa 1 0.9
total 113 1

Source: Admission Register K.I.T 1999-2000

Thus its sparse educational hinterland is extended all over the country and intensive educational hinterland confines to Tumkur Hassan, Chikkamagalur, Chitradurga and Shimoga districts of southern central Karnataka state.

Table No. 5.3 is indicates the students form various parts of education service zone of Tiptur. For the purpose of demarcation of the educational hinterland, 12 institutions and about 2000 students’ addresses have been taken from the admission register so. While taking address, random sampling method has been adopted. In selecting schools and colleges, Higher Secondary schools and above and colleges as also convert have been considered, because Lower and Higher primary educational hinterland is almost limited to the town. Besides the schools and colleges, one Hostel also has been considered. To avoid annual variation 1998, 1999 and 2000, date of three different academic years from different schools/colleges have been taken.

Of the 2000 students, 1301 are from the Tiptur town and taluk, itself which accounts for 65.05% (See table no. 5.3). It is quite natural, that Tiptur town being a central place and also with good educational facilities than the other surrounding taluks has attracted students form the whole taluk. The next important place is Arasikere Taluks accounting for 7.15%. Again, the quality of education in high schools and further better in Tiptur than in Arasikere. Particularly, Commerce and Science education has gained much importance. The presence of a good number of Veerashaiva hostels in Tiptur is another significant factor. Chikkanayakanahalli taluk is stands third in contributing students to Tiptur a accounting for 5.25% of the students. Kalpatharu group of educational institutions is the guiding spirit in spreading the educational service zone in this area. At the same time Chikkanayakanahalli town a less and moderate level of high schools and other educational institutions. In the South and South – east of the town the students of Channarayapattana and Turuvekere taluks are also served by the educational institutions of this town. They account for 4.50% and 4.15% respectively. Kadur, Arasikere and Tarikere also contribute students, especially to colleges. Hosadurga, after Chikkanayakanahalli, is an important town accounting for 2.95%, 1.90% and 1.60% respectively. Here the role of hostels is factors important in addition to the presence of Kalpatharu institutions.

One of the important characteristics in the expansion of educational services zone can be seen in Gubbi Taluk. The neighboring taluks of Tiptur send 4.15% to 7.15% students to Tiptur. The Gubbi taluk is contribution is only 0.45%. This is because of nearness of Tumkur and plenty of educational institutions in Gubbi. Table No. 5.4 has been prepared to show the volume of the students in the various parts of education service zone.

Table No. 5.4
Students from Different Taluks for Educational Institutions of Tiptur during 2000-2001.

Sl. No. Name of the Taluk No. of Students Percentage
1 Tiptur 1301 65.05
2 Arasikere 143 7.15
3 Chikkanayakanahalli 105 5.25
4 Channarayapatna 90 4.5
5 Tutuvekere 83 4.15
6 Kadur 59 2.95
7 Tarikere 38 1.9
8 Hosadurga 32 1.6
9 Belur 13 0.65
10 Chikkamagalure 11 0.55
11 Gubbi 9 0.45
12 Hassan 9 0.45
13 Holalkere 2 0.1
14 Kunigal 2 0.1
15 Others 103 5.15
Total Samples 2000 100

Source: Admission Register of different institutions.

If we examine the direction wise expansion of educational service zone, data collected from various educational institutions reveal the wider zone under engineering education service which is quite longer than the others. It has reached a distance of about 100-110 Kms. from Tiptur town. Arasikere, Kadur, Tarikere, Hosadurga, Holalkere taluks. Hundreds of villages and towns of are served by the Educational institutions of Tiptur town. Places like Panchana Halli, Singitigere, Yagati, Ajjampura, Shivani, Ramagiri, Belagooru, Honnavalli, Jayachamarajapura, Dibburu, Srirampura and surrounding villages are served by Tiptur’s educational institutions.

Good quality of education, particularly in science and commerce subjects, number of hostels, road and railway transport network and a presence of good accelerating forces are responsible for the expansion of educational service zone. As Lingayat or Veerashaiva hostels located in Tiptur which is another factor attracting a good number of students from long distances.

Western Part of Education Service Zone has reached Arasikere, Kadur, and Chikkamagalure, taluks. The first two are considered for the number of students. This part extends to about 55 Kms from the town. Belagumba, Kodihalli, Aggunda, Bendekere, Banavara, Javagal, Undiganalu and surrounding villages of Arasikere taluks and the town of Arasikere are also served by Tiptur’s educational institutions (See figure No. 5.21). The students of Mathighatta, Keresanrthe, Mallapura, Thangali, Devanooru, Sakkareyapattana and the town of kadur and surrounding villages in the Kadur taluk, are the beneficiaries of education from Tiptur.

In Arasiker town, B.Com and Pre-university science students out number students of other students. In Bapuji SS/ST Hostel which is located near Kalpatatu College, considerable number of students hails from Arasikere and Kadur taluk. In 1999-2000, 30% of the total students of this hostel were from this part of service zone.

South-western Part of Education Service Zone extends to about 40 Kms from the town. Students from Arasikere, Channarayapatna, and Hassan taluks are clubbed with students from Tiptur taluk from this part of education service zone. Students of constituent villages like Tadasooru, Gandasi, Gowdanakatte, Lakkihalli, Chindenahalli, Bidare, Kembalu, Kenkere, Hullekere, Bagevalu, Attavara, Kittanakere, and surrounding places are benefited. In this direction, Hassan more excels in the number of educational institutions. Hence after 25 Kms from the town, strength of students goes on decreasing.

Southern Part of Educational Service Zone extends to about 40 Kms from the town. It has spread in Tiptur and Channarayapatna, taluk students from Rangapura, Dasarighatta, Jayapura, Sooguru, Huniseghatta, Karehalli, Nuggehalli, Bagooru Navile, Hirisave, Santheshivara and surrounding village’s come to Tiptur to study.

South-western Part of Education Service Zone has reached places of about 40 to 45 Kms distance from the Tiptur town. Tiptur and Turuveker taluk’s villages and the Turuvekere town also depend upon Tiptur towns educational institutions, to some extent, fall into this side of educational hinterlands. Particularly, science and commerce students come in the marginal and inner area of educational service zone. Kalpatharu Vidya Samsthe is a strong pulling force in this respect. Students of Arts College are served by other local colleges as they are not much worried about quality. However, a few students of Arts are also attracted by the Pallagatti Adavappa Arts and Commerce College. Villages in this direction are Belagarahalli, karadalu, Echanooru, Nagaraghatta, Nonavinakere, Vignasanthe, Gungaramale, Mallaghatta, Somenhalli, Gonitumkur, Muniyooru, Aralikere, Hosakere, Jadaya, Dabbegatta. Students from there villages and surrounding places come to Tiptur for education.

Eastern Part of Education Service Zone has reached Ammasandra and its surrounding places which are about 25-30 Kms away from Tiptur. Students from Chikkanayakanahalli, Turuvekere, and Guvvi taluks often join with Tiptur taluk students. Bus facility, National High Way,(B.H. Road) Railway transportation facility of help in commuting between home and schools/colleges. Bilagere, thimmlapura, kibbanahalli, Rajatadripura, Beerasandra, Kupalu, Aralguppe and surrounding villages of Tiptur taluk; Halagana, Jayachamarajapura, Godekere, Tarabenahally and surrounding village of Chikkanayakanahalli taluk; and Banasandra, Dunda, Ramdihalli, Sampige, Sadavenahalli and surrounding places of Tutuvekere taluk are served by educational hinterlands in this direction. Finally, Kondali, Hosahalli, Doddaguni, Marashettihally and surrounding villages of Gubbi taluk also come under education service zone of Tiptur in the Eastern part.

North – Eastern Education Service Zone has extended to a distance of about 35 Kms from Tiptur town and covers both Tiptur and Chikkanayakanahalli taluks. Students hailing from Bennayakanahalli, Kalkere, Gopaladahalli, Sasalu, Settikere, Madihalli, Dabbeghatta, Navile, Malligehalli, jogihalli, Honnebagi, Palakette and surrounding places, including the town of Chikkanayakanahalli, are served and helped by Tiptur town.

Northern Part of Educational Service Zone is the second longest in distance in education service zone only next to the North-Western part. Among with the Tiptur taluk, Chikkanayakanahalli, Hosadurga and Hiryur Taluks’ places have been expanding this direction and have reached about 60-65 Kms distance from the town of Tiptur. The frequency of private bus service and Veerashaiva hostels and Kalpatharu Educational Institutions are playing an important role in attraction students from such a long distance. Halkurike, Gowdanakatte, Halenahalli and surrounding villages of Tiptur taluk are using the education service of high schools and colleges. Mathighatta, Handankere, Belagooru, Huliyaru, Kenkere, Yelanadu, and surrounding places of Chikkanayakanahalli taluk are the second highest in terms of the number. Third place in this regard goes to Hosadurga taluk (See figure no. 5.21). Undergraduate students from Srirampura, Balasamudra, Attighattka, Mathodu, Kittadalu, Kanchipura, Neralakere, and surrounding places prefer science and commerce arts. Lastly, students from the southern parts villages of Hiriyur taluk also come to Tiptur in small number. Important of these villages, are Yalladakere, Rangapura Obolapura, Handiginadu and some villages surrounding them.

Two important factors have come to the knowledge at the time of survey, about the extent and strength of the education hinterlands of Tiptur town. In the 1980s and 1990s, a number of first grade colleges come up in all the taluk head quarters. The number of students from out side the taluk is decreasing in the subsequent years. The study of Arts and Humanities is losing its importance. Tiptur taluk and the ones surrounding it are not interdependent for education, interdependency.

Generally, in the border villages, hinterlands of two Taluks overlap each other. The case of Tiptur educational service zone is an exception. Students of other taluks come to Tiptur but instances of students of Tiptur taluk going to neighbouring taluks are rare. It is because of the availability of better educational services in the town itself since 1965 due to the efforts of Kalpataru educational institutions.

Medical Service Zone.

In the study of hinterland or an umland geographers (Sing R.L. 1964) have systematically delineated the medical service area of the urban settlements. Data related to medical service rendered by the town or the city like Bangalore has been analyzed. Here, in the case of Tiptur town to demarcate the medical service zone about three hundred patients have been questioned. Enquiries about the medical services available and rendered by them to surrounding areas have been made in the case of six nursing homes. Ten clinics and Government General Hospitals of Tiptur.

Tiptur being a commercial town and a sub-divisional head quarters, has got fairly good medical service facilities. By virtue of its location on a high way with rich hinterland good trade and commerce, no other taluk center in Tumkur District equals Tiptur town. To take care of the health services of Tiptur and neighbouring taluks many health institutions have been struggling day and night. Twenty five Alopathy, two Homeopathy, three Ayurvedic and also one sub divisional general hospital, a primary health center, ten nursing homes are operating in the town giving medical services to people of the town and its surrounding areas.

The following table provides information about Health facilities

Table No. 5.5
Health Facilities in Tiptur in 2000-2001

Sl. No. Type of Medical Facility Numbers
1 Alopathy Clinics 25
2 Homeopathi Centers 2
3 Aurvedic Centers 3
4 General Hospital 1
5 Primary Health Center 2
6 Veterinary Hospital 1
7 Nursing Homes 10
Total 55
8 Number of Clinical Laboratories 6
9 Number of Beds in
a) General Hospital 100
b) Nursing Home 136
Total 236
10 Specialist Service
a) General Surgery
b) Orthopedics
c) Radiology
d) Ophthalmology,
e) Obstetrics and Gynecology
f) Pediatrics
g) E. N. T. Specialist
h) Anesthesia,
i) Physician (general Medicine)
j) Dentist

Source: data compiled during 1999-2000 by personal survey

Also physicians, E.N.T. specialists, Radiologists, Dentists, and general surgeons form Bangalore and Tumkur visit various Nursing homes of this town.

Multi specialty General Hospital plays an important role in the extension of medical services to the surrounding zone. It has a capacity of 100 beds for in patients, and facilitated with physicians, General surgeons, ophthalmologists, pediyatrishion, orthopedics, gynecologists, radiologists, dentists, ultra sound scanning and Clinical Laboratory. Thus, Tiptur town has achieved a remarkable development in Health facilities. There are several reasons for this achievement. Most important, is its central location. It enjoys good transportation and educational facilities coupled with its economic status (copra trade) and environment. Tiptur is located at the centre of the taluks of Turuvekere, Channarayanapatna, Arasikere, Huliyar, Hosadurga, Panchanahalli, Chikkanayakanahalli and Ammasandra. Hence, it receives patients, throughout the year from the above places. Tiptur is 70 Kms away from the district head quarters. It helps to attract patients from the places far flung from the district head quarters. Medical facilities Roads and Railway transportation help a lot with good frequencies of bus and train services. Good transportation facilities as already mentioned with its very location on B.H. Road is an added advantage. Science education offered in Kalpataru College since 1964 in Tiptur town has resulted in producing a good number of local doctors. A good many of these doctors are practicing in Tiptur. Economic status of the Tiptur taluk is better than that of the surrounding taluks. Hence doctors are able to establish their own clinics and Nursing Homes. From point of view of patients, a majority to the population is able to manage to get good and rather cheaper health facilities. Tiptur and its surroundings is a coconut cultivation area. It is also a region where Malaria and other common communicable diseases such as viral fever, Enteric fever, gastritis, U.R.T.I and scabies are common. Besides, other diseases like cancer have inevitably invited more and more doctors and hospitals. Due to these factors medical service zone of Tiptur town has spread over an area about 3,412.8 sq. Kms. The outer view of medical service zone looks like a papaya fruit kept in the North-South direction (figure no. 5.22 and 5.23). This service zone also extends more in North-south than in East-West Factors are responsible for this phenomenon is also because of the extension of medical service zones. Absence of good hospital in the Northern part of Tiptur town (Chikkanayakanahalli and Hosdurga taluk) is the main factor for the longer extension of medical service zone in this direction.

It we come to the details of Medical service zone of Tiptur town, it consists of the villages of Turuveker, Channarayapatana, Arasikere, Hosadurga, Chikkanayakanahalli and Gubbi taluks and also towns like Turuvekere, Arasikere, and Chikkanayakanahalli. Within the boundary of this taluk all types of patients get medical services. Apart from this only patients who need specialist services come to Tiptur.

1.    To the East and West good road and railway transportation take people either to Arasikere (24Km west) or to the East to Gubbi (50Km) and Tumkum city (72 Km).
2.    Though there are towns to North and South of Tiptur, (Chikkanayakanahalli, hosadurga, Turuvekere etc) as already mentioned, Tiptur with better and specialized medical facilities attracts more and more people in the North South direction giving this bloated shape in these directions.

Eastern part of Medical service zone extends up to about 25 Kms along B.H. Road and Railway line. About 45 villagers to Tiptur, Turuvekere, and Gubbi taluks utilize the health services of he town in this direction. Tumkur which has better and more specialist medical services and also a medical college attract patients. Therefore, the number of patients in this zone goes on decreasing as we move towards east from Tiptur town. The prominent villages of this section are karadi, Knppalu, Aralaguppe, Jakkanahalli, Thimmlapura, Siddlehalli, and surrounding villages of Tiptur taluks;Banasandra, Ammasandra, Neeragunda, Somalapura, Heggere, Golladahalli, and surrounding villages of turuvekere taluk; villages like Doddaguni, Marashettihalli, Hosahalli, and Kondli. The patients of these prices also get medical services.

South-East Direction Medical Service Zone extends to about 40 Kms. It has crossed Turuvekere town also. As Turuvekere town has a small number of health institutions than Tiptur tow, patients who are in need of specialist services and better medical service normally come to Hospitals of Tiptur. Patients from the town of Turuveker and most of the surrounding villages such as Karadalu, Nagaraghatta, Nellikere, nonavinekere, Vignasanthe, Gungaramale, and surrounding villages of Tiptur taluk and Mallaghatta, hosahalli, Somanahalli, Dabbeghatta, Aralikere, Muniyooru, Dandinashivara, Hullekere, Chandrapura ger medical services from Tiptur’s health institutions. About 65 villages in this direction get medical services from Tiptur town.

Southern Part of Medical Service Zone has extended to about 40 Kms towards Channarayapatna. It touches Channrayapatna in Hassan district. Hence villages of both Tiptur and Channarayapatna Taluk have relatively better medical services. This zone is little wider. Although there is a lack of good transportation facility like East and Western part of medical service zone, it has not had much impact on extension of medical service zone. People of Keragodi, Rangapura, Bajagooru, Dasarighatta, Hunaseghatta, Machkatte, Jayapura, Soogooru, Aladhahalli, and surrounding villages of Tiptur taluk, Karehalli, Navile, Hirisave, Nuggehalli, Mandaleekanahalli, Kabbali, Bovenehally, and surrounding villages are benefiting from Tiptur town. About 75 villages are located in the southern medical service zone (See figure No. 5.22 and 5.23)

South-Western Part Medical Service zone has developed along Tiptur-Hassan road to a distance of about 25 Kms. Hassan which is the neighbouring district having better medical facilities is able to capture more medical hinterland than Tiptur town. Hence medical service zone in this direction is limited to 25 Kms. Only Tadasur, Besuge, Gurugadahalli, Shivara, Basavanahalli, Alalehalli, Chindanahalli, Hullekere, Bagevalu, Chagachegere, Bidre, Valagarahalli, Kembalu, Gandasi, and surrounding villages of Tiptur, Arasikere, and Channarayapatna Taluks have been identified as villages of Tiptur town’s medical service zone of South-Western part. Hassan being a district head quarter and locating itself in National Highway (N.H) 48 (Bangalore-Mangalore) lying half way between Bangalore and Mangalore commands good medical facilities. Its influence is evident towards Tiptur also.

Western Part of Medical Service zone extends to about 20Kms along B.H. Road and railway line, at times reaching beyond Arasikere (25-30 Kms). At the time of survey, it was observed that eight patients from Sulekere villages of Arasikere taluk were coming to Tiptur for medical treatment from a distance of 20 Kms. Bidare, Nagathihalli, Madenooru, Mathihalli, Gowdanakatte, krishnapura, Belagumba, Laxmidevarahalli, Sulekere, Kodihalli, Kellangere, and surrounding about 30 villages of Tiptur and Arasikere taluk villages are included within the limits of medical service zone of Tiptur from western side.

North-Western Medical Service Zone has spread up to 40 Kms from the town of Tiptur along Tiptur – Honnavalli – Jayachamarajapura road and further. As there is no good specialist and Nursing Homes and Hospitals in this direction, medical service zone has extended longer than in the western part. Honavalli, Muddenahalli, Balavaneralu, Ramonahalli, Chikkonahalli, Kamasamudra, Jayachamarajapura, Holalkere, Ramapura Doddametikutike, Madalu, Dibburu, Kittankere, and surrounding villages of Tiptur and Arasikere are served by the health centers of Tiptur town. After crossing the Tiptur taluk boundary, the number of outpatients goes on declining but female inpatients who come to nursing homes for maternity service are more in number. Outpatients who seeking specialist services are also large in number from outsider the taluk.

Northern part Medical Service Zone is distinct from all other parts, because it has the longest medical service section. Villages of Tiptur, Chikkanayakanahalli and Hosadurga Taluks of this part are served by the doctors of Tiptur town. It covers a distance of about 50 Kms Villages such as Halkurike, Mankikere, Halenahalli, Manjunathapura, and surrounding villages of Tiptur taluk, Mathighatta, Handankere, Laxmipura, Ennegere, Nandihalli, Huliyar, Kenkere, Kuppur as well as villages surrounding Chikkanayakanahalli taluk are covered by this medical service zone. The third is Hosadurga taluk’s Kanchipura, Kittadalu,, Bukkasagara, Mathodu, Neralekere, and surrounding villages. There are about 100 villages in the Northern part of medical service zone. Important factors responsible in this medical zone are – relatively meager transportation facilities; access for all villages to a main road and quite a longer distance to other towns with good medical services. Important factors that attract patients to Tiptur are Multi- specialty Hospital, Nursing Homes, Specialist Doctors and visiting specialists and a high frequency of private bus service. Complicated cases prefer Tiptur. If need be they can go to Bangalore easily from Tiptur by road or railway. Copra business in Tiptur A.P.M.C. matrimonial relationships with Tiptur and nearby villages and social relationships also play an indirect role for augmented medical treatment at Tiptur. Trade and commercial links with Tiptur from these villages cannot be ignored for its indirect role on the extension of medical service zone.

The main factor that turns away the patients is the absence of good and specialized service Hospitals in the nearby places of Northern part of medical service zone.

North-East Medical Service Zone has extended to a distance of 35 Kms from Tiptur and Chikkanayakanahalli town and its villages are in this zone. People from places along Tiptur- Chikkanayakanahalli,road and villages along Bidar, Srirangapattana state highway also come to Tiptur for medical services. Kallekere, meesethimmanahalli, Chikkamarappana halli, k.G. Palya, Settikere, Sasalu, Earalegere, Kurubarahalli, Navile, Muddenahalli, Alakatte, Jogihalli, Honnebagi and surrounding villages are included in the North-east medical service zone. Chikkanayakanahalli town does not have advanced medical facilities. Therefore, Tiptur hospital and laboratories serve them.

Tiptur town’s medical service is not only limited to care of the health of humans, but also extended to take care of the health of domestic animals. Tiptur taluk has 233 villages. Domestic animals have been receiving treatment and preventive health care facilities from the veterinary medical service from Tiptur and also through its rural extension services. In this wing of health care, the Office Assistant Director of Veterinary Services is serving with its branches covering the entire taluk. Since two and a half decades co-operative dairies have come up all over the taluk. A cattle health service also has improves. However, this confine to Tiptur taluk only as it is an administrative issue.

Tiptur town has a rather wide medical zone by way of a Multi specialist general hospital, twenty five clinics, ten Nursing Homes, thirty medical shops and an office of Assistant Director of Veterinary Service.

Cinema Service Zone:

Since mid 20th century, cinema became the major form of entertainment all over the world. Even after the advent of T.V. cinema enjoys its own importance an in country like India. There is virtually no town or city in India which does not have a cinema hall.

Tiptur town has four cinema theaters, Vinoda being the oldest. Laxmi, Ganesh and Thrimurthi appeared on after another respectively in the subsequent years.

B.H. road and Railway station road at present have cinemas in the town. Cinema service zone has mainly expanded all over the taluk in some parts. Sometimes it also explains on the basis of road and railway transport network around Tiptur town. Along B.H. Road towards Tumkur side, Cinema service zone extends up to Kibbanahalli cross. Some of the good movies still attract the viewers beyond the Kibbanahalli cross. Particularly good Kannada movies attract people from a little longer distance. About 20 villages are served by theatres of Tiptur. Another parallel road to B.H. Road is Miraj-Bangalore Railway route. As far as cinema viewers are concerned, this railway route is not so attractive because of less frequency and inconvenient timings. In contrast to this, buses come to the town at cinema time by using road transport. Cinema viewers of this direction (East) come from Ammasandra, Banasandra, Aralaguppe, Kuppalu, Karadi and 18 surrounding villages who are served by Tiptur cinema theatres.

South East Part of Cinema Service Zone is spread over both sides of Tiptur - Turuvekere road. About 40 villages are included in this section. Even though Turuvekere has its own theatres, Tiptur attracts viewers from this place also because theaters of Tiptur are more modern. The theatres of Tiptur normally exhibit films of different languages in the first week of their release. For this reason Tiptur has captured some amount of viewers from the Nonavinakere and Turuvekere cinema service zone. Cinema service zone of this section extends to about 28 Kms and includes Turuveker, Nonavinakere, Albooru, Kanathoor, and surrounding villages. They are (from Tiptur towards Turuvekere) Eechanoor, Koppa, Nagaraghatta Bachihalli, Nallikere, Vignasanethepalya of Tiptur to Hosahalli, Somenahalli etc., of Turuvekere.

Southern Side of Cinema Hinterland or Service Zone of cinema extends to south of the town. This extends to Karehalli and Nuggehalli of Channarayapatna to a distance of 15-20 Kms from Tiptur. About 35 villages are included in this section of service. This south cinema zone has a big number of viewers because of few local theaters. Viewers depend on cinema theaters of Tiptur. Better economic status enables the people of this part of cinema service zone. Comparatively this is wider than other parts of cinema zone. Starting from Tiptur town, Hosahalli, Anagondanahalli, Keragodi, Rangapura, Yedagarahalli, Kurubarahalli, Jayapura, Sugur, Hunaseghatta, Mathighatta, Dasarighatta and some other villages are important in Tiptur taluk in this regard. Some villages of Channarayapatna taluk are also served by Tiptur town’s theaters. Important villages of Channarayapatna taluk that are served are Karehalli, Navile, and Kembalu etc.

The Cinema Service Zone towards South-West, that is, in the direction of Tiptur Hassan road extends up to Heggatta of Arasikere which is 20 Kms from the town. Villagee roads from Hassan – Tiptur main road like Shinara road, Bidaregudi Road, Kembal road also serve the villages for various purposes, including providing cinema service. Honnenahalli, Tadasur, Besa, Goragondanahalli, Shivara, Chindenahalli, Kembalu Heggatta etc. are the important villages totally about 40 villages get service from the theatre of Tiptur town.

The Western Part of Cinema Service Zone has extended to about 18-20 Kms. It consists of both the sides of the B.H. Road in between Tiptur and Arasikere. The important villages of Tiptur in this section – from east to west Madihalli, Gollarahalli, Madanur, M.Krishnapura, Mathihalli, etc., fall in to cinema area zone of Tiptur. The western part of cinema entertainment zone has captured some of the Arasikere taluk villages also mainly, they are Belogumba, kellangere, Sulekere, Adihalli etc. this section of cinema service zone has both road and railway transport facility. About 20 villages are served in this part of cinema service zone.

North-West Cinema Zone explains the cinema viewers who are settled on both sides of Tiptur, Honnavalli road. This section’s service zone extends beyond Honnavalli to a distance of 19-25 Kms. This is the zone which is away from the other good theaters of towns. Most of the people depend on Tiptur town’s theatres. About 20 important villages are served by Tiptur theaters.

Northern Cinema Service Zone is a little longer than North-East and North West. It is because of better bus service frequency. Northern cinema service zone extends of about 35 Kms from the town. Nearly 40 villages of both Tiptur and Chikkanayakanahalli taluk are getting cinema service from Tiptur. Important villages are Sarthavalli, Manikikere, Harisamudra, Halenahalli, Halkurke of Tiptur and Balagihalli, Madapura, Bandarahalli, Mathighatta of Chikkanayakanahalli taluk. Tiptur attracts a lot of villages in this section of cinema zone, because these villages have no alternative sources if cinema compared to Tiptur. People have to go to far away theatres in Tiptur.

Northeast Cinema Zone consists of both sides of Tiptur Chikkanayakanahalli road, in this part of Cinema service zone includes villages of Tiptur and Chikkanayakanahalli taluk like Kallegowdanapalya, Doddamarpahanalli, Chikamarphanahalli, Eeralogere are important villages of Tiptur taluk Gopalanhalli, Makuvalli and Shettikere villages of Chikkanayakanahalli are important. In Chikkanayakanahalli taluk about 15 villages are included in this part of service zone. However Tiptur town has about 1,200 sq. Kms. of cinema service zone. (See figure No. 5.24 and 5.25)

As Cinema service is concerned, Tiptur town is better among the towns of surrounding taluk. Copra merchants maintain the theatres and they are in a better shape. Another reason is thet the coconut planters have time, money and transport favilities compared with other farmers. Thirdly, students of the town’s colleges and schools carry the information to villages about films. Therefore, in Tiptur town, still four theaters are running well in spite of a glut of movies.

Administrative Hinterland of Tiptur

Tiptur gained prominence as a centre of administration in 1986 when the taluk office was shifted from Hemavathi, the erstwhile taluk head quarters. However, this place has now become the heart of the town where the present vegetable market is situated. In the 1920s the town became the headquarters of revenue sub-division, somprising the taluks of Tiptur, Turuvekere and Chikkanayakanahalli. The office of the Amildar was established on what were their outskirts of the town. It was placed under the charge of Assistant commissioner. Since than several officers were transferred to Tiptur and at present (2000-2001) as many as fifty officials are functioning from here. They are distributed all over the town but their concentration can be seen in the western part of the town, along B.H. Road, which is an ideal place for the location of their offices.

Tiptur town’s administrative hinterland consists of three taluks, namely, Tiptur, Turuvekere and Chikkanayakanahalli. [See figure No.5.26 and 5.27], Tiptur is the sub-divisional headquarters for all the three taluks. The administrative area of Tiptur measures of 2676 sq.Kms.(25.2%) which included all the three taluks. The total population of these taluks account for 5, 53, 854 according to 1991 census (24%). Out of this 69, 696. 18.2% people come under urban population. Table No. 5.6 gives some more details.

Table No. 5.6
Position of Tiptur Sub-Division in Tumkur District

Sl. No. Sub division and Taluk Area in Sq.Kms Population in 1991 Percentage to District Total Urban Population Percentage to urban District total
1 Tumkur Sub-division 3228 892802 3871 216923 56.76
Tumkur 1026 426137 18.48 179877 47.07
Kunigal 981 235050 10.19 23232 6.08
Gubbi 1221 231615 10.04 13814 3.61
2 Tiptur Sub-division 2676 553854 24.02 69696 18.24
Tiptur 785 195826 8.49 36053 9.43
Turuvekere 778 164609 7.14 15980 4.18
Chikkanayakanahalli 1113 193419 8.39 17663 4.62
3 Madhugiri Sub-division 4692 859163 37.27 95544 25
Madhugiri 1131 245600 10.66 21828 5.71
Koratagere 652 145560 6.31 11531 3.01
Pavagada 1358 212768 9.23 28792 7.54
Sira 1551 255235 11.07 33939 8.74
District Total 10596 2305819 100 382163 100

Source: ‘District at a Glance’ District Statistics Office, Tumkur 1998-99.

The home taluk administrative hinterland has an area of 785 sq. Kms. The taluk consists of 231 villages. There are twenty-six village panchayats. Five police stations are maintaining law and order. In the taluks twenty-four financial institutions (Banks, Cooperatives) are functioning. Agriculture Produce co-operative markers and other such institutions account for 812 Kms length of various types of roads distributed and maintained by the state and central governments. 356 educational institutions have been imparting providing education from primary to higher levels. Forty-five government health institutions were functioning during 1999 (See Table No. 5.7)

Chikkanayakanahalli taluk is a part of Tiptur sub-division located towards Northeast of Tiptur. This taluk has an area of 1113 sq. Kms. There are 234 villages in this taluk. Twenty-eight village Panchayats are engaged in rural administration. According to 1996 census, the total population of the taluk was 1,93,419, urban population accounting only 17,663. Three police stations, eighteen financial institutions, ninety – two institutions such as markering, cooperative organizations etc., have been functioning as a part of administration. Chikkanayakanahalli taluk has a total length of 759 Kms roads. Educational institutions account for 383 and are imparting a higher level of education. Fifty seven health institutions are functioning all over the taluk. (See Table No.5.7)

Table No. 5.7
Details of Tiptur Sub-division 1999-2000

Name of the Taluks Tiptur Turuvekere Chikkanayakanahalli
Area in Sq. Kms. 785 778 1113
Number of villages 231 243 234
Number of Village Panchayats 26 26 33
Population (1991) 195826 164609 193419
Educational Institutions 356 377 383
Health Institutions 48 55 55
Police Stations 5 4 3
Length of Roads 904 629 759
Financial and co-operative institutions 112 93 92

Source: District at a Glance (Tumkur District)

Turuvekere Taluk towards Southwest to the Tiptur taluk Turuvekere taluk is situated. It has an area of 778 sq. Kms. There are 243 villages in Turuvekere taluk, which come under the jurisdiction of sub-divisional office of Tiptur. Twenty-six village Panchayats of this taluk are functioning in the area of rural development. Police administration is being done through four police stations. Two regulated markets and ninety-three cooperative organizations are working in the taluk. Various parts of Turuvekere taluk have been connected by 629 Kms of roads. 377 educational Institutions functioning for educational development. 85 Health institutions (including family welfare units) are administrative by the taluk medical officer [See Table no. 5.7]. Thus the Administrative hinterland of Tiptur town consists of the taluks and the sub division which has consists of three taluks. [For further more information See Figure Nos. 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, and 5.32].